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Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Justice System based on
Dependency and Delinquency
Status Offense
a violation of the law that pertains to minors but not adults
Minor Juvenile Delinquency System
Created because kids are unique & don't understand the consequences for their actions
Parens Patriae
"parent of the country", parental role awarded to court to do whatever was necessary to help kid.
Age of Enlightment (1700s)
liberalizing, humans have rights
Child Savers Movement (1800s)
brought juvenile system
Modern Juvenile System
Civil & Criminal Law
Civil Law
Body of law dealing with private rights of individuals
Criminal Law
act against state
Moral Relativism
differences in moral judgement across different cultures
Official Statistics
statistics gathered from uniformed crime reports to the FBI
Problems with Official Statistics
1. Dark Figure data- data is missing from someone not reporting it
2. 80% of crimes weren't solved
3. Missing Information on Criminal (socioeconomic class, background)
4. Police Bias- racism, crime could be minor for area
Index Crimes
someone is hurt
Victimless Crimes
violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
Benefit with Official Statistics
shows general trends
Self Report Data
Data collected directly from participants, typically by means of interviews or questionnaires.
Cross Sectional Data
statistics only from people who are criminals
Benefits of Self Report Data
1. more detailed personal information on the subject
2. attitude when committing the crimes
3. personality traits, education, family background
Problems with Self-Report Data
1. questions made before study were just assumptions of the researcher
a. questions could lead a response
b. some may be objective or not
2. researcher bias
3. so many researchers ask different questions and compile them together
4. honesty of people taking survey
5. views are exaggerated
Victimization Data
data obtained by asking people to report their experiences as crime victims
Problems with Victimization Data
1. Self-Report Data- hope they'll be honest
2. Bias in questions
3. Not everyone reports crimes.
Are young or old people more likely to commit crimes?
young, because of school
Are young or old people more likely to be the criminal?
Aging Out
A term used to explain the fact that criminal activity declines with age.
Chronic Persistent Offender
adults that keep committing crimes
assumptions in a theory
Choice Theory
Humans have their own free will
Motivators Behind Human Choice
1. desire to seek pleasure or benefit
2. desire to avoid pain
Criminal Laws (say someone is a criminal)
amensenia-a mental wrong
Effective Deterrence
severe, certain punishment
Does Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?
Why doesn't Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?
Juveniles are less knowledgable
Trait Theory
un, The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.
Biological Theories
in your genes. Made by Caesar Lombroso
Psychological Theories
Maladaptive (used to be adaptive, now is a trait)
Freudian Traits
adaptive traits you have to get you more attention
Pathological Traits
the traits you adapted
Freudian/Psychodynamic Theory
ID, Ego, Superego
Oral Phase
before talking/vocab, taking reality and putting symbols next to it
Anal Phase
to control everything with speaking (6-16)
Falic Phase
experience genitals
Behavioral Psychology
Personality formed punishment and positive and negative reinforcement
Social Structure Theories
crime is a product of social stratification, which is caused by an unequal distribution of wealth
Social Disorganization (Sean & McKay)
highest crime rates & most serious crimes happen in urban transitional...economic decline classes
Criticism of Social Structure Theory
not everyone that commits crimes are in the low class
Relative Deprivation (Sean & McKay)
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Strain Theory (Robert Mertan)
All people share the same values and goals...but not everyone can attain them
Social Adaptations
how people balance their materialistic goals with achieving them
Social Adaptation actions
Conformity, innovation, retreatism, rebellion, ritualism
Delinquent Subculture (Albert Cowen)
a reaction or protest of standards of society that can't be reached due to poverty
Social Process Theory
socialization impacts us to be criminals or not
Learning Theory
criminality is learned through socialization (born good)
Control Theory
people need socialization to be law binding (born bad
Differential Association (Edwin Sutherland)
criminality learned trough techniques, motivations, and attitudes
Unfavorable Definitions
makes you a criminal
Criticism of Social Process Theory
doesn't explain what does and does not make you a criminal
Differential Reinforcement
modeling behavior you see
Neutralization Theory
denial of responsibility & injury of victim, blames victim, or blames society
Social Control Theory
socialization leads someone to be law binding
Travis Hershey's Social Bond Elements
ttachment, commitment, involvement
Social Reaction Theory
labeling theory
Solution to Social Reaction Theory
altering labels we use & diversion of standard arrest process
Prior to the 1800s families were
Industrial Revolution created better jobs and the _______ family
4 areas of Family Dynamics
1. Broken Families
2. Someone in the family being an addict
3. Quality of Relationships
4. Abuse and Neglect
Conflict within a family is more significant than _____
Witness is just as disturbed by an addiction as the ____
The more kids.....
the more delinquents
The middle child is
more delinquent
In 1962, Dr. Kephy announced the
Battered Child Syndrome
Prior to 1962
Parenting was private business
Traumatic Sexualization
disruption in sexual identity. Abused become abuser
Problems with sex abuse studies
1. Sexual abuse is in private
2. Kids don't report it
3. Child may not know it's wrong
CYF investigates
Child Abuse legal processes
Guardian Ad Litem
adult named to sue or defend on behalf of a minor
using third party information to testify in court
To make it easier for a child to testify there is
blocking screens, less formal environment, and use of heresy