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Juvenile Justice System based on

Dependency and Delinquency

Status Offense

a violation of the law that pertains to minors but not adults

Minor Juvenile Delinquency System

Created because kids are unique & don't understand the consequences for their actions

Parens Patriae

"parent of the country", parental role awarded to court to do whatever was necessary to help kid.

Age of Enlightment (1700s)

liberalizing, humans have rights

Child Savers Movement (1800s)

brought juvenile system

Modern Juvenile System

Civil & Criminal Law

Civil Law

Body of law dealing with private rights of individuals

Criminal Law

act against state

Moral Relativism

differences in moral judgement across different cultures

Official Statistics

statistics gathered from uniformed crime reports to the FBI

Problems with Official Statistics

1. Dark Figure data- data is missing from someone not reporting it
2. 80% of crimes weren't solved
3. Missing Information on Criminal (socioeconomic class, background)
4. Police Bias- racism, crime could be minor for area

Index Crimes

someone is hurt

Victimless Crimes

violations of law in which there are no obvious victims

Benefit with Official Statistics

shows general trends

Self Report Data

Data collected directly from participants, typically by means of interviews or questionnaires.

Cross Sectional Data

statistics only from people who are criminals

Benefits of Self Report Data

1. more detailed personal information on the subject
2. attitude when committing the crimes
3. personality traits, education, family background

Problems with Self-Report Data

1. questions made before study were just assumptions of the researcher
a. questions could lead a response
b. some may be objective or not
2. researcher bias
3. so many researchers ask different questions and compile them together
4. honesty of people taking survey
5. views are exaggerated

Victimization Data

data obtained by asking people to report their experiences as crime victims

Problems with Victimization Data

1. Self-Report Data- hope they'll be honest
2. Bias in questions
3. Not everyone reports crimes.

Are young or old people more likely to commit crimes?

young, because of school

Are young or old people more likely to be the criminal?


Aging Out

A term used to explain the fact that criminal activity declines with age.

Chronic Persistent Offender

adults that keep committing crimes


assumptions in a theory

Choice Theory

Humans have their own free will

Motivators Behind Human Choice

1. desire to seek pleasure or benefit
2. desire to avoid pain

Criminal Laws (say someone is a criminal)

amensenia-a mental wrong

Effective Deterrence

severe, certain punishment

Does Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?


Why doesn't Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?

Juveniles are less knowledgable

Trait Theory

un, The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.

Biological Theories

in your genes. Made by Caesar Lombroso

Psychological Theories

Maladaptive (used to be adaptive, now is a trait)

Freudian Traits

adaptive traits you have to get you more attention

Pathological Traits

the traits you adapted

Freudian/Psychodynamic Theory

ID, Ego, Superego

Oral Phase

before talking/vocab, taking reality and putting symbols next to it

Anal Phase

to control everything with speaking (6-16)

Falic Phase

experience genitals

Behavioral Psychology

Personality formed punishment and positive and negative reinforcement

Social Structure Theories

crime is a product of social stratification, which is caused by an unequal distribution of wealth

Social Disorganization (Sean & McKay)

highest crime rates & most serious crimes happen in urban transitional...economic decline classes

Criticism of Social Structure Theory

not everyone that commits crimes are in the low class

Relative Deprivation (Sean & McKay)

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

Strain Theory (Robert Mertan)

All people share the same values and goals...but not everyone can attain them

Social Adaptations

how people balance their materialistic goals with achieving them

Social Adaptation actions

Conformity, innovation, retreatism, rebellion, ritualism

Delinquent Subculture (Albert Cowen)

a reaction or protest of standards of society that can't be reached due to poverty

Social Process Theory

socialization impacts us to be criminals or not

Learning Theory

criminality is learned through socialization (born good)

Control Theory

people need socialization to be law binding (born bad

Differential Association (Edwin Sutherland)

criminality learned trough techniques, motivations, and attitudes

Unfavorable Definitions

makes you a criminal

Criticism of Social Process Theory

doesn't explain what does and does not make you a criminal

Differential Reinforcement

modeling behavior you see

Neutralization Theory

denial of responsibility & injury of victim, blames victim, or blames society

Social Control Theory

socialization leads someone to be law binding

Travis Hershey's Social Bond Elements

ttachment, commitment, involvement

Social Reaction Theory

labeling theory

Solution to Social Reaction Theory

altering labels we use & diversion of standard arrest process

Prior to the 1800s families were


Industrial Revolution created better jobs and the _______ family


4 areas of Family Dynamics

1. Broken Families
2. Someone in the family being an addict
3. Quality of Relationships
4. Abuse and Neglect

Conflict within a family is more significant than _____


Witness is just as disturbed by an addiction as the ____


The more kids.....

the more delinquents

The middle child is

more delinquent

In 1962, Dr. Kephy announced the

Battered Child Syndrome

Prior to 1962

Parenting was private business

Traumatic Sexualization

disruption in sexual identity. Abused become abuser

Problems with sex abuse studies

1. Sexual abuse is in private
2. Kids don't report it
3. Child may not know it's wrong

CYF investigates

Child Abuse legal processes

Guardian Ad Litem

adult named to sue or defend on behalf of a minor


using third party information to testify in court

To make it easier for a child to testify there is

blocking screens, less formal environment, and use of heresy

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