a violation of the law that pertains to minors but not adults
Minor Juvenile Delinquency System
Created because kids are unique & don't understand the consequences for their actions
"parent of the country", parental role awarded to court to do whatever was necessary to help kid.
Age of Enlightment (1700s)
liberalizing, humans have rights
Child Savers Movement (1800s)
brought juvenile system
Modern Juvenile System
Civil & Criminal Law
Body of law dealing with private rights of individuals
act against state
differences in moral judgement across different cultures
statistics gathered from uniformed crime reports to the FBI
Problems with Official Statistics
1. Dark Figure data- data is missing from someone not reporting it 2. 80% of crimes weren't solved 3. Missing Information on Criminal (socioeconomic class, background) 4. Police Bias- racism, crime could be minor for area
someone is hurt
violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
Benefit with Official Statistics
shows general trends
Self Report Data
Data collected directly from participants, typically by means of interviews or questionnaires.
Cross Sectional Data
statistics only from people who are criminals
Benefits of Self Report Data
1. more detailed personal information on the subject 2. attitude when committing the crimes 3. personality traits, education, family background
Problems with Self-Report Data
1. questions made before study were just assumptions of the researcher a. questions could lead a response b. some may be objective or not 2. researcher bias 3. so many researchers ask different questions and compile them together 4. honesty of people taking survey 5. views are exaggerated
data obtained by asking people to report their experiences as crime victims
Problems with Victimization Data
1. Self-Report Data- hope they'll be honest 2. Bias in questions 3. Not everyone reports crimes.
Are young or old people more likely to commit crimes?
young, because of school
Are young or old people more likely to be the criminal?
A term used to explain the fact that criminal activity declines with age.
Chronic Persistent Offender
adults that keep committing crimes
assumptions in a theory
Humans have their own free will
Motivators Behind Human Choice
1. desire to seek pleasure or benefit 2. desire to avoid pain
Criminal Laws (say someone is a criminal)
actusreus-act amensenia-a mental wrong
severe, certain punishment
Does Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?
Why doesn't Effective Deterrence work with juveniles?
Juveniles are less knowledgable
un, The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.
in your genes. Made by Caesar Lombroso
Maladaptive (used to be adaptive, now is a trait)
adaptive traits you have to get you more attention
the traits you adapted
ID, Ego, Superego
before talking/vocab, taking reality and putting symbols next to it
to control everything with speaking (6-16)
Personality formed punishment and positive and negative reinforcement
Social Structure Theories
crime is a product of social stratification, which is caused by an unequal distribution of wealth
Social Disorganization (Sean & McKay)
highest crime rates & most serious crimes happen in urban transitional...economic decline classes
Criticism of Social Structure Theory
not everyone that commits crimes are in the low class
Relative Deprivation (Sean & McKay)
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Strain Theory (Robert Mertan)
All people share the same values and goals...but not everyone can attain them
how people balance their materialistic goals with achieving them