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Made of the crust and the rigid mantle combined


the plastic-like layer below the lithosphere

Oceanic crust

Made of basalt, density 3.0g/cm3

Continental Crust

Made of granite, density 2.7 g/cm3

Convergent boundary

where two plates move together and form mountain ranges

Divergent boundary

where two plates move away from each other


Primary waves - the fastest energy waves given off by an earthquake, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases


Secondary waves - the slower moving energy waves given off by an earthquake, can travel only through solids

Hot Spot

an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it


the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

Outer Core

a liquid layer deep within Earth made primarily of iron and nickel


a deep canyon or ditch formed at a subduction zone


a sudden release of energy stored within earth's lithosphere

lag time

the time difference between the arrival of the p-waves and s-waves

origin time

the exact clock time that an earthquake occurred

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