Geography HL Extension Definitions
Terms in this set (37)
Any organisation or movement that work in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern. Civil societies include non-governmental organizations ( NGOs), community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith based organisations.
Core and Periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery . The concept can be applied at various scales.
The practice of promoting the culture/language of one nation in another. It is usually the case that the former is a large, economically or militarily powerful nation and the later is a smaller, less affluent one.
A measure of the distance food travels from its source to the consumer. This can be given either in units of actual distance or of energy consumed during transport.
"The growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.
The KOF index measures three main dimensions of globalization: economic, political and social, and nations are ranked accordingly. It is designed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology on a yearly basis.
A term that was invented to emphasize that the globalisation of a product is more likely to succeed when the product or service is adapted specifically to each locality or culture in which it is marketed. The increasing presence of McDonald's restaurants worldwide is an example of globalization, while changes made to the menus of the restaurant chain, in an attempt to appeal to local tastes, are an example of glocalization.
Gross national income. The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.
The concept of taking internal company functions and paying an outside firm to handle them. Outsourcing is done to save money, improve quality or free company resources for other activities.
The reduction in time taken to travel between two places due to improvements in transportation or communication technology.
Transnational corporation (TNC)
A firm that owns or controls productive operations in more than one country through foreign direct investment.
The theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste under prevailing technology.
Global climate change
The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods and storms, resulting from changes on the Earth's atmosphere, believed to be mainly caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect.
The movement of people, involving a change of residence, it can be internal or external (international) and voluntary or forced. It does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism.
Transfers of money/goods by foreign workers to their home countries.
A severe reduction in the quality of soils. The term includes soil erosion, salinization and soil exhaustion (loss of fertility).
Physical Water Scarcity
Where water resource development is approaching or has exceeded unsustainable levels; it relates water availability to water demand and implies that arid areas are not necessarily water scarce.
Economic Water Scarcity
Where water is available locally but not accessible for human, institutional or financial capital reasons.
A major hazard event that causes widespread disruption to a community or region that the affected community is unable to deal with adequately without outside help.
A threat (whether natural or human) that has the potential to cause loss of life, injury, property damage,socio-economic disruption or environmental degradation.
The occurrence (realization) of a hazard, the effects of which change demographic, economic and/or environmental conditions.
The probability of a hazard event causing harmful consequences (expected losses in terms of deaths, injuries, property damage, economy and environment).
The susceptibility of a community to a hazard or to the impacts of a hazard event.
The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time. It is customary to distinguish between environmental carrying capacity ( the maximum number before the local environment becomes damaged) and perceptual carrying capacity (the maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as noise, to be excessive). For example, young mountain bikers may be more tolerant than elderly walkers.
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in a non-work time.
Primary tourist/recreational resources
The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation ( that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites. These are distinguished from secondary tourist/recreational resources, which include accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping
A leisure-time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment. It includes individual pursuits, organized outings and events, and non-paid (non-professional) sports.
A settlement where the primary function is tourism. This includes a hotel complex.
A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competitive.
Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure. Note that this definition excludes day-trippers. There are many possible subdivisions including, ecotourism, heritage tourism, sustainable tourism.
Tourism focussing on the natural environment and local communities
Tourism based on a historic legacy (landscape feature, historic building or event) as its major attraction.
Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people.
A measure of the distance that food travels from its source to the consumer. This can be given either in units of actual distance or of energy consumed during transport.
Heath-adjusted life expectancy, based on life expectancy at birth but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health ( due to disease and/or injury). It is the equivalent number of years in full health that a newborn can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality.
A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita.
The long term maintenance of diverse ecosystem components while it retaining its productivity for all species including humans so that we can continue to maintain a high standard of living.