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Make dark skin pigment melanin; more is produced to fight off UV rays and to protect the nucleus
5 Layers of Thick Skin of the Epidermis
Because Soda Gives Lotsa Caffeine
Papillary Layer of Dermis
Made of areolar connective tissue
Includes dermal papillae
Thicker on the hands and feet to help with gripping ability and increase friction
Reticular Layer of Dermis
"Reticulum" (network) of collagen and reticular fibers that give strength and resiliency and prevents damage
80% of dermis
How a fingerprint is formed
Dermal papillae lie on top of dermal ridges which elevate the overlying epidermis into epidermal ridges. The sweat from pores in these ridges leave "sweat films" on surfaces.
3 Major pigments of the skin and the colors they each give
Melanin--yellow to red-brown to black
Carotene--gives an orange-yellow color
Hemoglobin--gives a pinkish color
Why a person gets tan
A tan is created because melanin is produced rapidly to protect the DNA in the nucleus. By absorbing & dissipating energy as heat, melanin protects the nucleus from UV radiation. The more sun exposure, the more melanin is produced.
Abundant on palms, soles of feet, forehead
Made of true sweat: 99% water, some salts, traces of waste
Functions to prevent overheating
Found in the axillary, anal and genital areas only
Begins to function at puberty
The organic molecules in these glands decompose with time and when mixed with bacteria causes odor
Found in ear canal.
Functions to secrete cerumen (earwax) that helps keep out foreign bodies
What occurs when a sebaceous gland becomes blocked?
When a sebaceous gland is blocked, a whitehead forms. When oxidation of the whitehead occurs, a blackhead is formed. This can lead to a bacterial infection causing acne (usually caused by staphylococcus bacteria).
Root hair plexus
Hair follicle receptor; contains sensory nerve endings that wrap around each hair bulb
Nail Part Labeling
Integumentary System Functions
Peanut Butter Can Make Bob Excited
Protection--the skin contains chemical, physical, and biological barriers that defend against bacteria, viruses, and any other invaders.
Body Temperature Regulation--we sweat to cool off and shiver to keep warm and maintain homeostasis
Cutaneous sensation--our bodies contain cells that help feel a 'caress' or clothes on skin and protect us from injuring ourselves
Metabolic functions--skin allows us to help make Vitamin D, to disarm cancer-causing chemicals, and activate steroid hormones
Blood Reservoir--skin holds 5% of blood volume so when extra blood is needed, the dermis helps out
Excretion--skin helps rid body of wastes like salts, ammonia, urea, & uric acid
Basal Cell Carcinoma
*Most common skin cancer and least malignant
*Comes from the Stratum Basale
*Overexposure to the sun is the major cause of this and most types of skin cancers
*Those who work outside are at a greater risk
*Fairer skinned people are more susceptible
*Warning signs include: open sores that bleed or ooze; reddish patches on the shoulders arms, and legs; shiny bumps that are transluscent; pink growths
*Treatments include: removal of the area using local anesthetic; topical chemotherapy; radiation
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
*The second most common skin cancer
*Starts in the Stratum Spinosum
*Caused by chronic overexposure to the sun
*Rim of ear and lower lip are especially vulnerable
*Fair skinned people with lighter hair and light eyes are at a greater risk
*Warning signs include: wart-like growth that crusts and bleeds; a scaly, red patch of skin with irregular borders that may crust or bleed; open sores that crust or bleed for weeks
*Treatments include: several types of surgery to remove the affected area; radiation treatments
*Most serious form of skin cancer
*Accounts for 5% of all skin cancers
*It can occur anywhere that melanin is found
*Chronic sun exposure is a risk factor, as well as moles, fair skin, a family history, and a weakened immune system
*Moles, brown spots, and growths on the skin are warning signs
*Treatments include surgical excision when caught early, otherwise this cancer is fatal
*Use ABCDE's to check for melanoma
ABCDE's of Melanoma
A - Asymmetry - if the two sides of a pigmented spot do not match
B - Border irregularity - if the edges of a spot are scalloped or notched
C - Colors - if there are a variety of shades of color
D - Diameter larger than 6 mm or the size of a pencil eraser
E - Elevation - if the spot is raised at all
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