42 terms

Apes Chapter 4-Global climates and Biomes

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climate
the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time
troposphere
a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16km(10mi) and containing most of the atmospheres nitrogen,oxygen, and water vapor
stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16-50km above the surface of Earth
albedo
the % of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface
saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
adiabatic cooling
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
adiabatic heating
the heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
hadley cells
a convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30N and 30S
intertropical convergence zone
an area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight;where the ascending branches of the two hadley cells converge
polar cells
a convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60N and 60S and sinks at the poles, 90N and 90S
coriolis effect
the deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth
gyres
a large-scae pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
upwelling
the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
thermohaline circulation
an oceanic circulation patter that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
el nino-southern oscillation (ENSO
the periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in Souther Africa and Southeast Asia
rain shadow
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain rage as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
biomes
a geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water
tundra
a cold treeless biome with low-growing vegetation
permafrost
an impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil
boreal forests
a forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
temperate rainforest
a coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation
temperate seasonal forests
a biomes with warmer summers and colder winters that temperate rain forests dominated by deciduous trees
woodland/shrubland
a biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
temperate grassland/cold desert
a biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers
tropical rainforest
a warm and wet biome found between 20N and 20S of the equator, with little seasonal variation and high precipitation
tropical seasonal forests
a biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
savannas
a biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
subtropical deserts
a biome prevailing at approximately 30N and 30S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation
littoral zone
the shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow
limnetic zone
a zone of open water in lakes and ponds
phytoplankton
floating algae
profundal zone
a region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
benthic zone
the muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean
salt marshes
a marsh containing non-woody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates
mangrove swamps
a swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water
intertidal zone
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
coral reefs
the most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline
coral bleaching
a phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals the turn white
photic zone
the upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight photosynthesis
aphotic zone
the layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
chemosynthesis
a process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide