ANTH195: Exam One
Terms in this set (72)
where the focus of power is on physical and social bodies (bodies = population) that require scientific and state/government intervention
the ability to get people to do what you want: through force (tangible or not, ex: threat) or symbolic means
-power is dispersed in many shapes and forms (ex: national anthem)
-constantly reproduced whenever people interact with one another, express and attitude, seek learning or create knowledge
FDA exercises this by ensuring the safety of the drugs and food we put into our bodies so that we remain healthy
There is a well-being for the greater portion of America by choosing to implement border patrol (jobs, lives, health, etc.)
How is the border patrol exercising biopower?
Bare Life (Agamben)
those who "may be killed and yet not sacrificed"
State of Exception (Agamben)
similar to state of emergency: the state's ability to transcend the rule of law in the name of public good
The Patriot Act, HB2 (transgender bathroom law)
Example of the State of Exception
State of Exception
Agamben argues that the border is one big __________________.
the idea that humans are the most important beings in the universe
humans are different from all other organisms
Human relationship to the natural world (anthropocentric)
nonhuman species are here to fulfill our needs (hunting/butchering, animal trade, sacrifice)
new age/epic (ex: jurassic, cretaceous, tertiary, holocene, etc.)
the capacity of individuals to change their social, cultural, and material circumstance (humans)
anything that "modifies other actors through a series of actions" (nonhumans)
a. the observer actively participates in the lives of his or her informants.
In participant observation,
a. The observer actively participates in the lives of his or her informants.
b. The observer seeks to change the cultural practices of his or her informants.
c. The observer participates in a situation by removing his/herself from all daily actions.
d. None of the above
If a household leads a settled lifestyle and only sends people out to travel with their herds seasonally, this means that they can no longer be considered pastoralists. True/False
Anthropologists only study cultures different from their own. True/False
The Kula, a system ritualized jewelry exchange within the Trobriand Islands, is an example of which kind of reciprocity?
assumption that any aspect of a culture is integrated with another aspect so that no dimension of culture can be understood in isolation
ex: to study marriage one must also study economic forces, political leadership, family life, etc.
to study marriage one must also study economic forces, political leadership, family life, etc.
Give an example of the holistic perspective
to make the strange familiar and the familiar strange
multiple ways of understanding and living in the world that are at once plausible and arbitrary
sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society
the opinion that one's own way of life is natural/correct and the only way of being fully human
Europeans believed they were "civilizing" people they interacted with and that they were superior to nations they colonized.
Give an example of enthnocentrism
Four fields of anthropology
archaeology, biological/physical, linguistic, and cultural/sociocultural
cultures can only be judged relative to one another, and the meaning of a given belief or behavior must first and foremost be understood relative to its own cultural context
What is the "antidote" to enthrocentrism?
cultural knowledge that people can talk about
cultural knowledge that one possesses that we either lack words for or that is simply not discussed
1. deny that any standpoint is equally privileged
2. one thing is relative to a particular framework
All forms of relativism do what two things?
____________ ______________ makes it impossible for people to assert how one set of practices/beliefs are better than others.
specific groups of people living together in particular ways
the idea that social relations are patterned and predictable
role played by social institutions in the satisfaction of the basic needs of individual organisms
contribution of social institutions to the maintenance of the conditions of existence of the collective organism
Ethnography (as process)
establishes rapport, selecting informants, transcribing texts taking genealogies, mapping fields, keeping a diary
-aims for breadth
Enthography (as object)
the kind of intellectual effort. it is an elaborate venture in "thick description".
period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which anthropologists ordinarily collect information
social arrangements that put individuals and populations into harm's way
-embedded in the political and economic organization of our social world
using up of material good necessary for human survival
transforming raw materials into a form suitable for human use
the allocation of goods and services
4 types of exchange
exchange when two individuals or groups pass objects back and forth ex: Kula ring
no expectation of exact or prompt repayment (usually between two people with a close bond)
ex: parents buying kids a car
expectation that something more or less equivalent value will be given in return (usually a delayed period of time between people who aren't that close)
ex: buying friends drinks
exchanges where both parties attempt to gain all they can from the exchange while giving up as little as possible (usually a short time period/immediate payment with a very weak bond between parties)
The decisions, practices, even adaptations, made by people to get what they need and want in order to survive
Horticulture- allows the land to lie fallow or practice slash and burn techniques
Horticulture vs. Agriculture
-Depend on the domestication of animals and the use of their products to subsist
-Mobile way of life From farming combined with livestock keeping (agro-pastoralists) to full migratory patterns (nomadism)
Spend over half their nights in the forest or at another settlements
Why were the Gebusi characterized as "nomads" by the Australians?
-People who have no permanent residence
-Shift settlement to hunt or tend livestock
-Often contrasted with sedentary people
Forage (bamboo shoots, wild bush hen eggs, tarantulas, breadfruit, chestnuts, etc)
Gardening (within an hours walk)
What type of subsistence strategy do the Gebusi exhibit most strongly?
What types of subsistence strategies do the Sami operate within? Are they compatible?
The Sami in the documentary utilize a number of traditional and contemporary technologies as they herd the reindeer. In what, if any, way did that surprise you?
What challenges exist for the communities that want to hold onto these ways of life?
Are the Sami "in-betweeners"? Why or why not?
1. do no harm
2. be open and honest about your work
3. obtain informed consent and necessary permissions
4. weigh competing ethical observations
5. make results accessible
6. protect and preserve your records
7. maintain ethical and respectful professional relationships
What are the 7 AAA principles of Ethical Research?
gaining prestige through giving things away, NOT through acquiring goods in the Kawelka of Papua, New Guinea
the collection of goods or money from a group, follow by the reallocation to the group by a centralized authority
an exchange in which products or objects are sold for money
-prices are set by supply and demand
the women selling peanuts (market exchange)
the gift giving of plantains (balanced)
How do the Gebusi exemplify exchange?
the manner in which reciprocal gift giving distributes prestige and scarce goods and services among people living in non market economies from a moral economy
esteem, respect, or approval for culturally-valued acts or qualities
opportunity for women to have independent role from men when they sell the peanuts, prestige in the "exchange name"
Prestige in the Gebusi:
they share the scarce resources, having those resources gives them prestige since they are scarce and the value of them goes up (while also putting them in danger)
Prestige/Scarce goods in the migrants?
Modes of Production
specifically, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is developed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge
Means of Production
land, tools, raw materials, infrastructure as workplaces, technical knowledge...
gender and age
What is the Gebusi's division of labor based on? (two factors)