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Educational Psychology Exam 1
Terms in this set (50)
Which of the following researchers, during the late 1880s, argued for the importance of observing classrooms for improving education?
Imagine you are an educational researcher who wants to learn about the type of psychological atmosphere in which middle school students feel most comfortable and best able to concentrate on their studies. You plan to look at a wide variety of factors that might contribute to such an atmosphere—both physical factors (e.g., cleanliness and colorfulness of the school building) and social factors—(e.g., teacher-student relationships, general tolerance for diverse behaviors and beliefs). You realize that students might identify important factors that you yourself haven't even thought of. In this situation, your best choice would probably be:
a qualitative study
Dr. Lesgold finds that students in private schools perform better on achievement tests than do students in public schools. He can conclude that:
Students' achievement test scores can be predicted to some extent by the kind of school they attend.
Which one of the following is the best example of action research?
A teacher gives her students a questionnaire that asks them to describe how often they study and what kinds of strategies they use when they study. She will use the results to develop several lessons on effective study skills.
Overall, effective teachers possess which of the following traits?
developmentally appropriate teaching practices, concrete classroom management skills, good strategies for assisting students to become self-motivated
According to Darling-Hammond and Bransford (2005), many effective teachers use what type of instructional approach?
both a constructivist and a direct instruction approach
Chu describes a writing assignment to her seventh-grade students. She divides the students into three groups. Although all students will participate in the writing assignment, Mrs. Chu has tailored the assignment to meet the developmental needs and abilities of each group. Mrs. Chu is using what type of instructional approach?
A teacher is interested in determining the motives behind a student's misbehavior in class. To collect relevant information, the teacher pays close attention to the student's behavior each day during class. When misbehavior occurs, the teacher makes notes concerning the context in which the misbehavior took place, the type of misbehavior demonstrated by the student, and the reactions of other students. Which of the following research methods is this teacher using?
Bringing seven parents to a school to be interviewed about a recent change to the art program would be called:
a focus group
What type of research seeks to describe the strength of the relation between two or more characteristics?
Most developmental theorists agree that
developmental milestones appear in a consistent sequence for most children
In the human brain, a great deal of synaptic pruning occurs in early childhood. This pruning appears to be:
An adaptive process that allows children to deal more efficiently with typical tasks in their environment
Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget's view of how children acquire knowledge about the world?
Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment.
Which one of the following best describes Piaget's notion of equilibration?
A child revises existing schemes to incorporate new information.
One thing that children in Piaget's formal operations stage can do, but children in the concrete operations stage cannot do, is:
Reason logically about strictly hypothetical situations
Central to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is the idea that children increasingly make better sense of their world:
By interacting with more experienced people who mediate their understandings
The number and size of the brain's nerve endings continue to grow at least until an individual reaches what age?
Myelination in areas of the brain that are important in focusing attention is not complete until an individual reaches approximately which age?
10 years old
Which of the following best describes an example of scaffolding as used by a teacher when assisting a child?
The teacher begins with direct instruction but gradually reduces the amount of guidance given.
Language is highly ordered and organized according to which systems of rules?
Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
Which of the following provides the best example of how the exosystem, as described by Bronfenbrenner, influences education?
The local government approves increased funding for public school libraries.
Bronfenbrenner's theory provides one of the few theoretical frameworks for systematically examining how which of the following influences a child's education?
Which of Erikson's stages best describes a child who is beginning to learn to be responsible for his or her self and belongings?
initiative vs. guilt
Andrea created a picture of an aquarium, which she plans to give to her teacher to hang in the classroom. Andrea was very excited by the idea that her teacher would hang up her picture on the wall, especially since the reason Andrea had made it was to show her teacher she could draw all sorts of fish from memory. In which of Erikson's stages do children realize that they can obtain the recognition of teachers and parents by producing things?
industry vs. inferiority
Sarita is experiencing some indecision. She has to choose what college to attend, whether to go away from home, what career to choose, and whether to room with someone she knows. According to Erikson's life-stage development theory, what stage is Sarita in?
identity vs. identity confusion
According to the author of the text, children are most likely to behave in socially competent ways if they are raised with which of the following types of parenting?
According to recent research, positive peer relations in elementary school is linked to which of the following?
Which of the following questions addresses the cognitive domain of moral development?
why does the student agree or disagree with a certain rule?
Which of the following statements best describes "character education"?
Direct teaching of a basic moral literacy through instruction and example
Which of the following individuals is in Kohlberg's social contract stage of moral reasoning?
Casey obeys the teacher because she understands that the only way that a classroom and a school can run effectively is if all of the students behave appropriately.
Binet's 1905 scale was developed for which of the following purposes?
To identify children who were unable to learn in regular school classrooms
In a normal distribution of Stanford-Binet IQ scores, approximately two-thirds of the IQ scores fall within which of the following ranges?
between an IQ of 84 and 116
Which of the following is a primary advantage of assessing student intelligence on an individual basis rather than using group intelligence tests?
the examiner can establish a rapport with the student and determine the student's level of anxiety
Monique's class is getting ready to switch classes for math. Some of the students in Monique's class will go to Mr. Roberts, others will go to Ms. Lowet, and others will stay with Monique's teacher Mrs. Gregors. All of these teachers are fourth-grade teachers. What is taking place in this scenario?
Which of the following scenarios is the best example of within-class ability grouping?
Students from one class divide into three small groups for reading.
All of the following scenarios depict a misuse of multiple intelligences in the classroom except:
Computers can be used to conduct a social studies pen pal project, which will enhance students' interpersonal skills.
Which of the following strategies would be most effective in helping impulsive students become more reflective?
ask students to think carefully before responding to questions
Murphy is weary of labeling children in his class as "difficult." Which of the following best explains Mr. Murphy's concern?
Labeling a child as difficult has the danger of becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy.
A child's tendency to analyze problems systematically and in an organized manner reflects which of the "big five" factors of personality?
A slow-to-warm-up child is likely to do which of the following?
be somewhat negative
Research suggests that people in all cultures have a tendency to do which of the following?
Believe that what happens in their own culture is natural and correct
According to the text, by the year 2025, approximately what percentage of public school students will be those currently considered "minority"?
Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to the categorization of people based on economic status as well as which of the following two characteristics?
Educational and Occupational
Bilingualism positively effects children's cognitive development in which of the following ways?
Enhanced reading ability, cognitive flexibility and complexity, improved concept formation and analytical reasoning
Mrs. Wagfield asks her students to bring something to the class that depicts their family histories. She then includes parts of each student's family's history and cultural background into the class's lessons. In this scenario, this teacher is demonstrating which of the following?
Culturally relevant education
All of the following strategies are recommended to help reduce bias in the classroom except:
forbid students from discussing their biases and prejudices
In which time period does multicultural education have its roots?
civil rights movement
Mrs. Skiton asks her student Melissa why she is not playing with the other children. Melissa tells her that she forgot to bring her doll and all that is left to play with are "boy's toys" like blocks and cars. What is Melissa exhibiting?
__________ are the social expectations that prescribe how males and females should think, act, and feel.
Which of the following statements best illustrates a sexist comment?
Women are competent early childhood teachers, but men are incapable of teaching young children.
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