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Chapter 1 From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E.
Before Civilization Mesopotamia Egypt The Indus Valley Civilization Comparative Perspectives
Terms in this set (29)
a group of people who have acchieved a high (complex) level of cultural, social, political, and technological development
socially transmitted patterns of action and expression. Material culture refers to physical objects, such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts. Also includes arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology
the study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices.
historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. followed by the Bronze age or more generally the iron age
the period of the stone age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period
the period of the stone age associated with the ancient agricultural revolution. It follows the paleolithic period
people who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects
the change from food gathering to food production that occured between ca 8000 and 2000 B.C.E
the geographical era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago.
structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religous purposes in Neolithic times
largest and most important city in babylon. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E.
People who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as ittigation, technology, cuneiform, and rreligous conception-taken over by their semetic successors
family of related languages spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languagesincluded Hebrew, Aramic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semiticc family is Arabic
small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding aricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic, and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. (polis)
ammorite ruler of Babylon (1792-1750) He conquered many city states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on black stone pillar, illustrating the principals to be used in legal cases
in the governemnts of many ancient societies, a professional position reseved for men who had undergone the lengthy training required to be able to read and write using cuneiforms, hieroglyphics, or other early, cumbersome writing systems
a massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.
small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil. found frequently in archeaological excavations in mesopotamia and Egypt, amulets reflect the religious practices of the common people
a system of writing in which wedge shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but lated was addapted to represent other languages of western asia. because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes
the central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an extremely manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt
egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptian's belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guaranto of this order
a large, triangular stone monument used in Egypt and Nubia as a burial place for the king. The largest pyramids erected during the Old Kingdom near Memphis with stone tools and compulsory labor, reflect the Egyptian belief that the proper amd spectacular burial of the divine ruler would guarantee the continued prosperity of the land
the capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near thehead of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids
Capital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties durring the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon, patron diety of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings.
a system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, sylables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbol-fomrs were developed for rapid composition on other media such as papyrus.
a reed that grows along the banks of the nile river in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient mediterranean and Middle East.
a body preserved by chemical processes or special natural circumstances, often in the belief that the deceased will need it again in the afterlife. In ancient Egypt the bodies of people who could afford mummification underwent a complex process of remobing organs, filling body cavities, dehydrating the corpse with Natron, and then wrapping the body with linen bandages and enclosing it in a wooden sacrophagus.
site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the north-western frontier of the zone of cultivation (in modern Pakistan), and may have been a center for the acquisation of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran.
Largest of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River in contemporary Pakistan. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale of construction at Mohenjo-Daro, the orderly grid of streets, and the standardizaiton of building materials are evidence of central planning.
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