Chapter 2 - AP Government Herman
Terms in this set (40)
An article added to the US constitution or a minor change in a document.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. They argued that the constitution was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and that it would weaken the power of the states.
Articles of Confederation
The first Constitution of the United States, adopted by congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislature.
a condition of financial failure caused by not having the money that you need to pay your debts.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and offer protections against arbitrary searches by the police and being held without talking to a lawyer.
bills of attainder
an act of legislature finding a person guilty of treason or felony without trial.
checks and balances
Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another's activities. This system reflects Madison's goal of setting power against power.
the authority to make or print money.
an organization of many groups, especially of states more or less permanently united for common purposes.
The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: The House of Representatives (representation is based on a state's share of the US population) and the Senate (each state has two representatives)
Consent of the Governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
A nation's basic law. Creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive (typically money, or documents)
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
A legislator who mirrors the preferences of his or her constituents.
the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically by a country's representatives abroad.
A unique American institution created by the Constitution that provides for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although the electoral college vote usually reflects a popular majority , the winner-take-all rule gives clout to big states.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972 and sent to the state legislatures for ratification, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite substantial public support and an extended deadline, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4 of the state legislatures.
Ex Post Facto Law
a law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed, increases the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier. The Constitution prohibits the making of these laws.
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10. Today's parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by factions.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail. Collectively, these papers are second only to the U.S Constitution in characterizing the framers' intents.
Taking back property because the money owed for the property has not been paid.
The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication of the executive, are in accord with the U.S Constitution. Judicial review was established by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury v. Madison.
a law or set of laws made by a government.
an amount of money that must be paid and that is collected by a government or other authority.
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments. (life, liberty and property)
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
the group of people who are responsible for making the laws in some kinds of government.
the act of illegally copying someone's product or invention without permission
to make (a treaty, agreement, etc.) official by signing it or voting for it..
A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, in a republic the people select representatives who make the laws.
the usually violent attempt by many people to end the rule of one government and start a new one.
separation of powers
An important part of the Madisonian model that requires each of the three branches of government--executive, legislative, and judicial-- to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions.
a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
a tax on goods coming into a country
the crime of trying to overthrow your country's government or of helping your country's enemies during war.
a government in which all power belongs to one person
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the US population.
writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.