157 terms

Ch 11 Genitourinary System

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cyst,vesic
bladder
glomerul
glomerulus
lith
stone
meat
opening meatus
nephr,ren
kidney
pyel
renal pelvis
ureter
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
andr
male
balan
glans penis
epididym
epididymus
orch orchid test
testis
perine
perineum; the region between the anus and the scrotum or the vulva
spermat
spermatozoa sperm cells
varic
dilated vein
vas
vessel
vesicul
seminal vesical
albumin
albumin protien
azot
nitrogenous compounds
crypt
hidden
gonad
sex glands
kal
potassium
keton
ketone bodies
olig
scanty
py
pus
cide
killing
spadias
slit,fissure
uria
urine
dia-
through, across
noct/o
night
nocturia
associated with prostate disease, urinary tract infection, and uncontrolled diabetes
anorchism
congenital or acquired absence of one or both testes
spermatocele
usually an epididymal cyst commonly containing sperm
Varicocele
dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord, the structure that supports the testes
Bilateral vasectomy
surgical procedure to produce sterility in males
Cryptorchidism
failure of the tests to descend into the scrotum; usually a congenital disorder
hypokalemia
may result from excessive urination, which depletes potassium from the body
ketonuria
commonly found in diabetes mellitus, starvation, and excessive dieting
Mumps infection
common cause of orchitis in young boys
meatotomy
performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra, which may inhibit the proper passage of urine or semen
vesicocele
bladder herniates into the vaginal wall, which may lead to incomplete emptying of the bladder
electrolytes
mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
filtrate
fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
nitrogenous wastes
products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen
peristaltic waves
sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
peritoneum
serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
plasma
liquid portion of blood, composed mostly of water, and containing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids and various waste products
semen
fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
testosterone
androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate
erythropoietin
a hormone secreted by the kidneys which acts on bone marrow to stimulate production of RBCs when blood O2 levels are low
anuria
Absence of urine production or urinary output
azotemia
Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood; aka uremia
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a burning sensation while urinating, most commonly a symptom of a UTI
end stage renal disease (ESRD)
Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost.
enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine. Also called incontinence.
fistula
Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another.
frequency
voiding urine at frequent intervals.
hesitancy
Involuntary delay in initiating urination.
hydronephrosis
Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract.
nephrotic syndrome
Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of glomerular membrane.
nocturia
Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed.
oliguria
Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism.
polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys.
urgency
feeling of the need to void immediately.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter.
Wilms tumor
Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children.
anorchidism
Congenital absence of one or both tests; also called anorchia or anorchism.
aspermia
Failure to form or ejaculate semen.
balanitis
Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis.
epispadias
Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis.
erectile dysfunction (ED)
Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
hydrocele
Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structure.
phimosis
Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis.
sterility
Inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum.
varicocele
Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
Pyelonephritis
aka kidney infection or complicated UTI; Bacteria invade the renal pelvis and kidney tissue
Glomerulonephritis
any condition that causes the glomerular walls to become inflamed, generally find blood and protein in the urine, red cell casts, HTN, edema, and impaired renal function; can be due to toxins released by bacteria, diabetes, or autoimmune diseases
Nephrolithiasis
Stones (calculi) may form in any part of the urinary tract, but most arise in the kidney.
Bladder neck Obstruction
blockage of the bladder outlet. May be caused by an enlarged prostate glands (prostatic hyypertrophy) or by the presence of an obstructive mass such as a calculus, blood clot, or tumor.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Associated with aging; The prostate enlarges and decreases the urethral lumen. Inability to empty the bladder completely may cause cystitis or nephritis
Acute Tubular Necrosis
Two major causes of ATN are ischemia and nephrotoxic injury. The tubular portion of the nephron is injured through either decreased blood supply or presence of toxic substances
Azotemia, uremia
wastes (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the blood.
Chronic renal failure
occurs over a period of years, whereby the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake; condition is due to deficiency in the total number of functioning nephrons in the kidneys
Hypospadias
developmental anomaly in the man in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum.
Cystography
radiography of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium, used to diagnose tumors or defects in the bladder wall, vesicoureteral reflux, stones, or other pathological conditions of the bladder.
Pyelogram
radiography of the ureters and renal pelvis.
Urography
radiography of the urinary tract after introduction of contrast medium.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Assesses kidney function by determining the nitrogen in blood in the form of urea (increased BUN usually indicates decreased renal function
Urine Culture and sensitivity (C&S
used to determine the sensitivity of a urinary pathogen to the effects of various antibiotics
Nephrolithotomy
incision of a kidney to remove a stone
Diuretics
agents that promote the secretion of urine.
Estrogen hormones
hormones used in men to suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones; used to treat some pro static cancers.
Gonadotropin
hormonal preparation used to raise sperm count in infertility cases.
Spermicidals
substances that destroy sperm; used within the woman's vagina for contraception
Uricosurics
agents that increase the urinary excretion of uric acid; used to treat gout.
pH
hydrogen ion concentration, degree of acidity.
bacteriuria
large quantities of bacteria in the urine
pyuria
large quantities of WBCs in the urine
hematuria
large quantities of RBCs in the urine
urolithiasis
stones that form in any part of the urinary tract
colic
intense, throbbing pain caused by stones lodging in the ureters
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
ESWL; calculi are pulverized using concentrated ultrasound waves directed at the stones from a machine outside the body
percutaneous nephrolithotomy
(PCNL) a small incision is made in the skin, and an opening is formed in the kidney; a nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove the stone
ureteroscopic stone removal
no incision required; a ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter where the basket collects the stone
orchiopexy
correction of cryptorchidism including a surgical suspension of the testes in the scrotum
prostate-specific antigen
PSA
periodic digital rectal examination
DRE; screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm aireas that might indicate cancer; physician inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and in males also assesses the prostate
brachytherapy
radioactive "seeds" are placed directly in the malignant tissue (tx of prostatic carcinomas)
testicular cancer
#1 cancer killer in men ages 20-30
cystometrography
primary test used to investigate stress incontinence and urge incontinence; assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling
kidney, ureter, bladder radiography
KUB radiography identifies stones and calcified areas and does not require a contrast medium; determines location, size, and shape of kidneys
Voiding cystourethrography
VCUG; examination of bladder and urethra before, during and after voiding; determines the cause of repeated bladder infections or stress incontinence and identity abnormalities of the bladder and urethra
dialysis
filters toxic substances from the pt's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes; used in pts with kidney failure
hemodialysis (HD)
removes waste from the blood by shunting it from the body through a machine where it is filtered, and then returning it to the pt's body
peritoneal dialysis
removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical soln
circumcision
removal of all or part of the foreskin, or prepuce, of the penis
nephropexy
fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
orchidectomy
removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
transurethral resection of the prostate
TURP; inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis
urethrotomy
incision of a urethral stricture to ease voiding
vasectomy
excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens; successful method of male contraception when performed bilaterally; is sometimes reversible
androgens
medication used to increase testosterone levels; used to tx hypogonadism and delayed puberty in males
diuretics
promote and increase the excretion of urine; treat edema, HTN, heart failure, and various renal and hepatic diseases
antispasmodics
decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscle lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder (spasms from UTIs or catheterization)
anti-impotence agents
treat ED (impotence) by increasing BF to the penis, resulting in an erection; should not be used by pts w/ coronary artery disease or HTN
acute glomerulonephritis
AGN
end-stage renal disease
ESRD
excretory urography
EU
bladder neck obstruction
BNO
blood urea nitrogen
BUN
acute renal failure
ARF
culture and sensitivity
C&S
genitourinary
GU
testicular self-examination
TSE
urinalysis
UA
voiding cystourethrography prostate
VCUG
vesicoureteral reflux
VUR
nephrons
microscopic filtering units found in the renal medulla (middle) portion of the kidney; responsible for maintaining homeostasis by regulating the contents of blood plasma
hilum
opening in the kidney near the medial border through which the renal artery enters (with waste products) and the renal vein exits (with clean blood)
renal pelvis
cavity where the ureter merges with the kidney
10-12 inches
how long is each ureter?
ureteral orifice
where the urine enters the bladder
rugae
small folds in the bladder that expand as the bladder fills
trigone
triangular area at the base of the bladder which is delineated by the openings of the ureters and the urethra
urethra
tube that discharges urine from the bladder; about 1.5 inches in women and 7-8 inches in men
micturition
urination
urinary meatus
the urethral opening
glomerulus
a tuft of capillaries in the renal corpuscle (of the nephron)
Bowman capsule
an enlarged extension of the renal tubule which encapsulates the glomerulus inside the nephron
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
3 physiological functions of the nephron as it produces urine
seminiferous tubules
produce sperm
testes
secrete testosterone
epididymis
a tightly coiled tube that lies over the superior surface of each testis; stores sperm after it leaves the seminiferous tubules
vas deferens
narrow tube that passes through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity; extends over the top and down the posterior surface of the bladder, where it joins the seminal vesicle
seminal vesicle
contains nutrients that support sperm viability and produces about 60% of the seminal fluid that is ejaculated
prostate gland
organ fused to the base of the bladder that secretes a thin, alkaline substance that accounts for 30% of the seminal fluid
bulbourethral (Cowper) glands
2 pea-shaped structures located below the prostate and are connected by a small duct to the urethra; provide the alkaline fluid necessary for sperm viability
1. proximal convoluted tubule
2. loop of Henle
3. distal tubule
4. collection tubule
4 sections of a renal tubule
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