either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
orch orchid test
perineum; the region between the anus and the scrotum or the vulva
spermatozoa sperm cells
associated with prostate disease, urinary tract infection, and uncontrolled diabetes
congenital or acquired absence of one or both testes
usually an epididymal cyst commonly containing sperm
dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord, the structure that supports the testes
surgical procedure to produce sterility in males
failure of the tests to descend into the scrotum; usually a congenital disorder
may result from excessive urination, which depletes potassium from the body
commonly found in diabetes mellitus, starvation, and excessive dieting
common cause of orchitis in young boys
performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra, which may inhibit the proper passage of urine or semen
bladder herniates into the vaginal wall, which may lead to incomplete emptying of the bladder
mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen
sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
liquid portion of blood, composed mostly of water, and containing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids and various waste products
fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate
a hormone secreted by the kidneys which acts on bone marrow to stimulate production of RBCs when blood O2 levels are low
Absence of urine production or urinary output
Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood; aka uremia
Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a burning sensation while urinating, most commonly a symptom of a UTI
end stage renal disease (ESRD)
Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost.
Involuntary discharge of urine. Also called incontinence.
Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another.
voiding urine at frequent intervals.
Involuntary delay in initiating urination.
Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract.
Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of glomerular membrane.
Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed.
Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism.
polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys.
feeling of the need to void immediately.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter.
Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children.
Congenital absence of one or both tests; also called anorchia or anorchism.
Failure to form or ejaculate semen.
Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis.
Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis.
erectile dysfunction (ED)
Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structure.
Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis.
Inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum.
Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
aka kidney infection or complicated UTI; Bacteria invade the renal pelvis and kidney tissue
any condition that causes the glomerular walls to become inflamed, generally find blood and protein in the urine, red cell casts, HTN, edema, and impaired renal function; can be due to toxins released by bacteria, diabetes, or autoimmune diseases
Stones (calculi) may form in any part of the urinary tract, but most arise in the kidney.
Bladder neck Obstruction
blockage of the bladder outlet. May be caused by an enlarged prostate glands (prostatic hyypertrophy) or by the presence of an obstructive mass such as a calculus, blood clot, or tumor.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Associated with aging; The prostate enlarges and decreases the urethral lumen. Inability to empty the bladder completely may cause cystitis or nephritis
Acute Tubular Necrosis
Two major causes of ATN are ischemia and nephrotoxic injury. The tubular portion of the nephron is injured through either decreased blood supply or presence of toxic substances
wastes (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the blood.
Chronic renal failure
occurs over a period of years, whereby the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake; condition is due to deficiency in the total number of functioning nephrons in the kidneys
developmental anomaly in the man in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum.
radiography of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium, used to diagnose tumors or defects in the bladder wall, vesicoureteral reflux, stones, or other pathological conditions of the bladder.
radiography of the ureters and renal pelvis.
radiography of the urinary tract after introduction of contrast medium.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Assesses kidney function by determining the nitrogen in blood in the form of urea (increased BUN usually indicates decreased renal function
Urine Culture and sensitivity (C&S
used to determine the sensitivity of a urinary pathogen to the effects of various antibiotics
incision of a kidney to remove a stone
agents that promote the secretion of urine.
hormones used in men to suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones; used to treat some pro static cancers.
hormonal preparation used to raise sperm count in infertility cases.
substances that destroy sperm; used within the woman's vagina for contraception
agents that increase the urinary excretion of uric acid; used to treat gout.
hydrogen ion concentration, degree of acidity.
large quantities of bacteria in the urine
large quantities of WBCs in the urine
large quantities of RBCs in the urine
stones that form in any part of the urinary tract
intense, throbbing pain caused by stones lodging in the ureters
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
ESWL; calculi are pulverized using concentrated ultrasound waves directed at the stones from a machine outside the body
(PCNL) a small incision is made in the skin, and an opening is formed in the kidney; a nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove the stone
ureteroscopic stone removal
no incision required; a ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter where the basket collects the stone
correction of cryptorchidism including a surgical suspension of the testes in the scrotum
periodic digital rectal examination
DRE; screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm aireas that might indicate cancer; physician inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and in males also assesses the prostate
radioactive "seeds" are placed directly in the malignant tissue (tx of prostatic carcinomas)
#1 cancer killer in men ages 20-30
primary test used to investigate stress incontinence and urge incontinence; assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling
kidney, ureter, bladder radiography
KUB radiography identifies stones and calcified areas and does not require a contrast medium; determines location, size, and shape of kidneys
VCUG; examination of bladder and urethra before, during and after voiding; determines the cause of repeated bladder infections or stress incontinence and identity abnormalities of the bladder and urethra
filters toxic substances from the pt's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes; used in pts with kidney failure
removes waste from the blood by shunting it from the body through a machine where it is filtered, and then returning it to the pt's body
removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical soln
removal of all or part of the foreskin, or prepuce, of the penis
fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
transurethral resection of the prostate
TURP; inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis
incision of a urethral stricture to ease voiding
excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens; successful method of male contraception when performed bilaterally; is sometimes reversible
medication used to increase testosterone levels; used to tx hypogonadism and delayed puberty in males
promote and increase the excretion of urine; treat edema, HTN, heart failure, and various renal and hepatic diseases
decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscle lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder (spasms from UTIs or catheterization)
treat ED (impotence) by increasing BF to the penis, resulting in an erection; should not be used by pts w/ coronary artery disease or HTN
end-stage renal disease
bladder neck obstruction
blood urea nitrogen
acute renal failure
culture and sensitivity
voiding cystourethrography prostate
microscopic filtering units found in the renal medulla (middle) portion of the kidney; responsible for maintaining homeostasis by regulating the contents of blood plasma
opening in the kidney near the medial border through which the renal artery enters (with waste products) and the renal vein exits (with clean blood)
cavity where the ureter merges with the kidney
how long is each ureter?
where the urine enters the bladder
small folds in the bladder that expand as the bladder fills
triangular area at the base of the bladder which is delineated by the openings of the ureters and the urethra
tube that discharges urine from the bladder; about 1.5 inches in women and 7-8 inches in men
the urethral opening
a tuft of capillaries in the renal corpuscle (of the nephron)
an enlarged extension of the renal tubule which encapsulates the glomerulus inside the nephron
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
3 physiological functions of the nephron as it produces urine
a tightly coiled tube that lies over the superior surface of each testis; stores sperm after it leaves the seminiferous tubules
narrow tube that passes through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity; extends over the top and down the posterior surface of the bladder, where it joins the seminal vesicle
contains nutrients that support sperm viability and produces about 60% of the seminal fluid that is ejaculated
organ fused to the base of the bladder that secretes a thin, alkaline substance that accounts for 30% of the seminal fluid
bulbourethral (Cowper) glands
2 pea-shaped structures located below the prostate and are connected by a small duct to the urethra; provide the alkaline fluid necessary for sperm viability