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U.S. History Industrial Revolution Study Guide
Terms in this set (66)
The period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
An American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb
An American inventor who invented the QWERTY keyboard
the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies. (Founded by Carnegie)
The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890.
Am. Federation of Labor
A national federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association.
Was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
An Irish-born American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent labor and community organizer. She helped coordinate major strikes and cofounded the Industrial Workers of the World.
The process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group: "Waves of immigrants have been assimilated into the American culture."
The system by which the value of a currency was defined in terms of gold, for which the currency could be exchanged. The gold standard was generally abandoned in the Depression of the 1930s
Plessey vs. Ferguson
A landmark constitutional law case of the US Supreme Court. It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
An American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Led the Niagara Movement
An African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W. E. B. Du Bois
Promontory Point, Utah (Railroad)
Point where the first transcontinental railroad was completed.
An American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his early years in Augusta, Georgia and Columbia, South Carolina.
A Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer
A book written to raise awareness of the poor treatment of packaged meat products.
A site of immigration that held testing for immigrants to enter the U.S. (in New York)
Teaching immigrants how to be American
A tenement building formerly common in New York City and having a long narrow plan characterized by two narrow air wells at each side.
A prolific 19th-century American author, best known for his many young-adult novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of middle-class security
Chinese Exclusion Act
A United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
A pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
The central bank of the United States. It was created by the Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system.Feb
A population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.
An organization of workers formed to promote collective bargaining with employers over wages, hours, fringe benefits, job security, and working conditions.
Early influences and a continuation of watchdog journalism. The term is a reference to a character in John Bunyan's classic Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake" that rejected salvation to focus on filth.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Fire in Manhattan, New York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in US history.
The process of creating steel through the purification of iron (by the use of compressed air)
An American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry, gaining his first patent at the age of 19
Creator of the first practical telephone
The process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain. A company may do this via internal expansion, acquisition or merger. Created by Rockefeller.
The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
Changed a portion of Article I, Section 9. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
A nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894 and a turning point for US labor law. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Clevelan
Education at the turn of the century
The turn from teaching African American children skills of manual labor but instead skills for less manual labor based jobs.
Booker T. Washington
An American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. (Muckraker) Created the Tuskegee Institution in Alabama for African Americans.
Jim Crow Laws
State and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued in force until 1965.
kill (someone), especially by hanging, for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial.
A black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. It was named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls, near Fort Erie, Ontario, was where the first meeting took place in July 1905.
Minority Help Groups
Groups designated to the helping of minorities during the Industrial Revolution. (Urban League helped blacks with employment)
An American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
A period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s. The main objective of the Progressive movement was eliminating corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses.
Author of "The Jungle" a book that raised awareness on the poor treatment of meat products
The flow of different groups coming to America such as Chinese,Europeans and Mexicans.
an immigration station where immigrants entering the United States were detained and interrogated. Near Tiburon.
City Sanitary Problems
The poor condition of the lower class areas of cities during the Industrial Revolution.
Inner-State Commerce Act
A United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
Urban dwellings occupied by impoverished families. They are apartment houses that barely meet or fail to meet the minimum standards of safety, sanitation, and comfort.
Agreement of 1907 (日米紳士協約 Nichibei Shinshi Kyōyaku ?) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the United States of America would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.
Gave women the right to vote without discrimination in the U.S.
A 1,907-mile (3,069 km) contiguous railroad line constructed in the United States between 1863 and 1869 west of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers to connect the Pacific coast at San Francisco Bay
Child Labor Laws
The most sweeping federal law that restricts the employment and abuse of child workers
Were important reform institutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and Chicago's Hull House was the best-known settlement in the United States
Muller vs. Oregon
A landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it was used to justify both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period.
a social reformer and political activist who championed government regulation to protect working women and children. Was born into a Pennsylvania Quaker and Unitarian family with a strong commitment to abolitionist and women's rights activism.
Was a Category 4 storm, with winds of up to 145 mph per hour, which made landfall on September 8, 1900, in Galveston, Texas, in the United States, leaving about 6,000 to 12,000 dead
Party to represent the common folk—especially farmers—against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processers, corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests.
Pure Food and Drug Act
An Act— For preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
Federal Trade Commission
A federal agency, established in 1914, that administers antitrust and consumer protection legislation in pursuit of free and fair competition in the marketplace.
4 Goals of Progressivism
Goals of a certain movement that were to:
-Protect Social Welfare
-Uphold moral values
Generate Economic Reform
The late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 30s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's 1873 The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding.
a person or agency employed to enforce antitrust legislation.
Meat Inspection Act
A United States Congress Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions
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