AP Government - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (30)
Established under the Articles of Confederation, established the US as a national entity in which states were not permitted to withdraw from the union.
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Three- Fifths Compromise
An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 stipulating that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person. This temporarily defused the rivalry between the merchants and the planters.
Powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution. For example, the Constitution gives Congress the power to coin money, impose taxes, and regulate interstate commerce. Expressed powers are also called enumerated powers.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government.
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Established in Marbury v. Madison (informal amendment to Constitution).
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Separation of Powers
A way of dividing the power of government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, each staffed separately, with equality and independence of each branch ensured by the Constitution.
A system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Checks and Balances
A major principle of the American system of government. Helps maintain separation of powers so that no one branch gets too powerful. Explained in Federalist 51. Examples: President vetoes laws; Senate confirms appointments & treaties; Congress impeaches president & judges, etc.
Oppressive government that employs the cruel and unjust use of power and authority.
List and describe the events leading up to the American Revolution and the writing of the Constitution.
1. British Taxes and Colonial interest
2. Political Strife and the Radicalization of the Colonies
3. Declaration of Independence
4. Articles of Confederation
British Taxes and Colonial interest
Due to expenses for defenses of the colonies during the French & Indian War, continuing protection from Indian attack, and the British navy providing colonies shipping, the British government relied on tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce. This affected New England merchants and southern planters, together and other businesses organized demonstrations and boycotts on British goods.
Political Strife and the Radicalization of the Colonies
The British government granted the East India company a monopoly on the export of tea from Britain, eliminating colonist competition. They responded with the Boston Tea party, Britain reacted by passing a series of acts that; closed the port of Boston to Commerce, changed the provincial government of Massachusetts, provided for the removal movement of accused persons to Britain for trial, and restricted movement to the west from southern colonies.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the 2nd Constitutional Congress, asserts unalienable rights, including life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. Identified specific grievances with the King of England and justifies separation to the world.
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789.
Were the founders motivated primarily by economic interest or moral principles?
A marriage of self-interest and philosophical principles motivated the founders.
Why did the framers believe that a new constitution was necessary?
The articles gave too much power to the states and the central government were powerless to intervene and stop unjustified economic policies put into place by landowners and shopkeepers. They were also unable to act decisively during the Shay's Rebellion, a time of crisis.
In what ways did the new constitution represent an improvement over the Articles of Confederation?
The new constitution introduced the ideas of Federalism, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, and the Bill of Rights.
How did the founders ultimately balance the need for an effective national government with the need to protect the rights of states and individuals?
The founders sought first a new government that would be strong enough to promote commerce and protect property from radical state legislatures. Second, the founders sought to prevent what they saw as the threat posed by the "excessive democracy" of the state and national government under the Articles. Third, the founders, lacking the power to force the states or the public at large to accept the new form of government, sought to identify principles that would help secure support. Finally, the founders wanted to be certain that the new government they created did not use it power to pose even more of a threat to it's citizens liberties and property rights then did the radical state legislatures they feared and despised.
What compromises were made during the Constitutional Convention and why?
The Great Compromise and Three-Fifth Compromise to please and temporally end the rivalry between the large/slave and small/merchant. states.
What strategies are built into the Constitution to prevent the abuse of power?
-Bicameralism (Division of the Congress into two cambers)
-Checks and Balances
-Staggered terms of Office
-Inducted election (selection of presidency through electoral college)
During the fight for ratification, what major criticisms did the Anti-federalists deliver against the proposed constitution? How did the Federalists respond?
Anti-federalist wanted a decentralized government, and did not wanted a constitution without a Bill of Rights. Therefore they reacted by making the Bill (first 10 Amendments)
Explain the process for amending Constitution and use specific examples to discuss they types of amendment that have actually been ratified.
When amendments are purposed 2/3 of Congress must approve the amendment. If Congress approves the amendment then 3/4 of the state must approve it.
Believed in State of Nature, state of perfect equality, absolute freedom, and others did not violate rights.
If government failed to protect property people may leave and join another political society.
Government can be dissolved if to many restricts are placed, or people who were not elected begin to make laws and cause distrust among the people.
Believed the founders were a group of men hoping to establish a stable government
Believed the founders were a group of men looking out for self-interest
Believed in separation of powers
Tribe and Dorf
Believed that the constitution can be interpreted in two different ways; what people want to see vs what it really says/