Psychology as a Science (1)
Terms in this set (64)
What are three types of errors in thinking?
1. Hindsight Bias
2. Over-Confidence error
3. Coincidence Error
What is hindsight bias?
-making sense of events after they all occurred
-when you say "I knew it all along"
-making sense of events after they've occurred as if it was always meant to be
What is overconfidence error?
-tendency to overestimate our abilities, knowledge, skills, etc.
-we tend to be off in our predictions of how well we can do something/how much we can do
Our level of confidence is usually much _________ than our level of accuracy
What is coincidence error?
-misperceiving correlation in random events
-mistakingly thinking that a random sequence of events is a meaningful pattern
Each event is __________
What composes the scientific attitude?
What is curiosity?
-always asking new questions
-always trying to figure out if the thing that you saw/the thing that you know truly is the way it is or if there is another explanantion
What are examples of curious questions?
1. That behavior I'm noticing in that guy.....
2. Is that common to all people
3. Is it more common under stress
4. Is it more common in males?
What is skepticism?
-not accepting a "fact" as true without challenging it
What are some examples of skeptical questions?
1. Is there another explanation for the behavior that I am seeing?
2. Is there a problem with how I measured it or how I set up my experiment?
3. Do I need to change my theory to fit the evidence?
What is humility?
-seeking the truth rather than trying to be right
-safeguarding against confirmation bias and belief perseverance
What is confirmation bias?
-only seeking information that confirms what you think
What is belief perseverance?
-hanging on to your beliefs even when you're confronted with data that doesn't support your belief
What is critical thinking?
-analyzing information, arguments, and conclusions to decide if they make sense rather than simply accepting it
How do we think critically?
1. Look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree
2. Look for hidden bias, politics, values, or personal connections
3. Put aside your own assumptions and biases and look at the evidence
4. See if there was a flaw in how the information was collected
What is the scientific method?
-the scientific method is the process of testing our ideas about the world by:
1. Turning our theories into testable predictions
2. gathering information related to our predictions
3. Analyzing whether the data fits with our ideas
What if the data doesn't fit our ideaS?
-then we modify our hypothesis, set up a study or experiment, and try to see if the world fits our predictions
-if the data doesn't support your theory, fix your theory!
What is a theory?
-a set of principles, built on observations and other verifiable facts, that explains some phenomenon and predicts future behavior
-the big picture
What is a hypothesis?
-a testable prediction that is consistent with your theory
What does testable mean?
-testable means that the hypothesis is stated in a way that we could make observations to find out if it is true
What is a hypothesis usually?
-an "if" "then" predicion
What are operational definitions?
-definitions of how to detect or measure something
What are some examples of operational definitions?
ADHD symptoms can be operationally defined as:
Impulsivity: # of times/hour caling out without raising hand
Hyperactivity:# of times/hour out of seat
Inattention: # of minutes continually on task before becoming distracted
what do operational definitions allow for?
What is replication?
-research means trying the methods of a study again, but with different participants or situations, to see if the same results happen
-replication means that you can maybe study a different population, different age group, etc.
What is an example of replication?
-trying the ADHD/sugar test on college students instead of elementary students
What does the replication process protect against?
What is descriptive research?
-the systematic, objective observation of people
What is the goal of descriptive research?
-to provide a clear, accurate picture of people's behaviors, thoughts, and attributes
What are strategies for gathering descriptive research information?
1. Case Study
2. Naturalistic Observation
3. Surveys and Interviews
What is a case study?
-observing and gathering information to compile an in-depth study of one individual
What is naturalistic observation?
-gathering data about behavior, watching but not intervening
What are surveys and interviews?
-having other people report on their own attitudes and behavior
What is a case study again?
-examining one individual in depth
What is a benefit of a case study?
-can be a source of ideas/observations about human nature in general
What is the danger of a case study?
-overgeneralization from anecdotal evidence
What is naturalistic observation again?
-observing "natural" behavior
-watching and taking notes, and not trying to change anything
-this method can be used to study more than one individual and to
Why is naturalistic observation important?
-it can be used to study more than one individual and to find truths about a broader population
What is the survey again?
-a method of gathering information about many people's thoughts or behaviors through self report rather than observation
What are some potential pitfalls of a survey?
1. wording of questioning can bias results
2. sampling errors can bias results
What is random sampling?
-a representative sample that resembles the population
-same proportion of diversity as the entire population
What does a representative sample provide?
-accurate information, even if it's small
When doing studies and you want to know something about a population, you want to....?
-take a random sample of that specific population
What does random sampling ensure?
-that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in your sample
What does "random" mean?
-that your selection of participants is driven only by chance, not by any characteristic
What do you get from a study?
What is correlation?
-an observation that two traits or attributes are related to each other
What is an example of correlation in a case study?
-the fewer hours the boy was allowed to sleep, the more episodes of aggression he displayed
What is an example of correlation is a naturalistic observation?
-children in a classroom who were dressed in heavy clothes were more likely to fall asleep than those wearing lighter clothes
What is an example of correlation is a survey?
-the greater number of Facebook friends the less time was spent studying
What is the correlation coefficient?
-a number that represents how closely and in what was two variables are related (change together)
What direction can the correlation coefficient go in?
-it can be positive or negative
What does the + or - tell you?
-the direction of the correlation
What does a + mean?
-the variables move in the same direction (positive correlation)
How is the strength of the relationship measured?
in a number that varies from 0 to +/- 1
Positive correlation (between 0 and +1)
-indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together
Negative correlation (between 0 and -1)
-indicates an inverse relationship; as one thing increases, the other decreases
What does 0 mean?
-there is no correlation
What determines the strength of the correlation?
-the absolute value of the correlation coefficient
What is a perfectly positive correlation?
What is a perfect negative correlation?
Does correlation mean causation?
What does correlation mean?
-that two things are related
-it does not mean that one thing caused the other