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Ms. Barbesta History Exam

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Renaissance
Centered in Italy, reformation of religion, a new beginning, a rebirth of classical learning proior to the middle ages, beginng of secular views of the people. People began to dress extravegently, focus on personal hygene, and have a sense of personal pride.
Patron
one who gives support (usually financialy) to an artist. They often commision works of their family heritage or to flaunt their wealth to the rest of society. Medici family of Italy is a good example of a patron.
Leonardo DaVinci
1452-1519, The true Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Most famous for the Mona Lisa, great facial expressions, Ginerva de' Benchi, Madonna of the Rocks, and the Last Supper.
Michaelangelo
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Some of his famous statues include the Moses, la pieta (in the Vatican), and the David.
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468) Printed the first bible in the vernacular. Leads to people questioning the church because now they could read scripture. People became literate and exploration was made possible (printing of maps). Propoganda becomes possible and books are cheaper and easier to find. Also laws became easier to follow and well known through the country. Caused ideas to spread more rapidly.
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Predestination
(theology) being determined in advance,(theology) the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits
Catholic Church Weakens
People began to question church due to the renaissance and the invention of the printing press. The people involved in the Reformation began to question church teachings, authority, immorality in church leaders, incompetent leaders, possible lies being told to the people, extravagence (mainly the pope), clurical pluralism (holding many positions at the same time), and dominance. They wanted the church to practice what they preached. Luther was a huge player in the reformation of the Catholic church.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. Luther lead the reformation with ideas like salvation can be achieved by faith alone, the bible is the true authority, no one is closer to God than anyone else, the people ARE the church, the wanting of no pope or priests, vernacular services (not in latin), the acceptance of priests being married, and the rejection of the Transubstantions (the changing of the elements to blood and flesh, signifying Jesus' life here on earth.
Lutheranism
The doctrine that is based off of the ideals and beliefs set forth by Martin Luther; Lutheranism went against the papal authority of the Church. Lutherans believed justification by faith alone.
Humanism
A movement towards individual advancement and the belief in the human spirit. Came about during the Italian Renaissance and provided room for the begingins of secular humanism.
North vs. South Renaissance
Northern: Began in Flanders (Wealthy merchant families lived in modern Netherlands), people tired of paying so much for goods from Italy, England and France both had good monarchs that were unifying their countries, and artists were escaping the war in Italy. In this time, artists were more intrested in realism and their portraits looked very photographic. Often the paintings were of everyday life. The northern humanists based their social reform on christin ideals and an ethical way of life. Southern: began after the crusades ended. At this time, feudalsim and manorialsim were the accepted social systems and the people allowed the Catholic church to govern them. People began to question the church and this rebellious age began the reformation of the church. People began to paint and study clssical literature and revert to old (Latin and Greek) ways. Itlay was the main center for the renaissance becasue people were feeing to Italy to escape the crusades. Secularism and humanism views began to emerge.
Renaissance man
A person who is successful when it comes to working, and overall universal, knew how to dance, fight, sing, write poetry, and how to create art, and well educated with the classics.
Effects of the printing press
people questioned the church because now they could read scripture. People became literate and exploration was made possible (printing of maps). Propoganda becomes possible and books are cheaper and easier to find. Also laws became easier to follow and well known through the country. Caused ideas to spread more rapidly.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564), religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society, religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Devshirme
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim janissaries. Often families wished for their sons to be taken because the boys were well educated and given options in the military and the government.
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. These warriors were loyal only to their sultan.
vizirs
Advisors the the Sultan evintually became to powerful and tried to overthrow many sultans.
conquest of constantinople
Ottomans from Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople in 1453. Mehmed II fired on the walls with his cannons, linked a chain across the straight to jeep ships out of the harbour and resupplying the city, took some of his ships out of the water and dragged them on runners to get them across the straight, mounted an attack on two sides of the city, and eventully was able to dominate the Bosporous straigt.
battle of chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavids vs the Ottomans. This was caused because the Sunni Ottams detested the Shiite Safavids and feared the spread of Safavid propaganda among the nomadic Turks in their territory. As soon as Selim the Grim became sultan of the Ottomans, he launched a persecution of Shiites in the Ottoman empire and prepared for a full-scale invasion of Safavid territory. The ottomans badly damaged the Safavid state, but lacked the resources to destroy it, and the two empires remained locked in intermittent conflict for the next two centuries.
Shah Jahan
the fifth Mogul emperor of India. During his reign, from 1628 to 1658, the Mogul Empire reached its zenith in prosperity and luxury. He is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal (built for his beloved wife after her death). Later, his son took advantage of his weaknes and threw him in jail to seize power. During his reign, the status of women declined even though he tried to raise it by getting rid of the practice of Satti (When a widow would burin hersle along with her late husbands body).
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
Safavid Empire
The Safavid empire rose in the early 1500's close to the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman empire. They often engaged in combat because of their location in present day Iran. They were sanwiched between the Mughals of India and the Ottomans of the Middle east. They were Shiite Muslims, while the Ottomans were Sunnis, and the Ottomans despised them.
Decline of the Ottomans
The ottomans were very slow to decline because it was such a large empire with imense wealth and culture. The Ottoman empire was to large to be maintained because there was limitted transportation and the sultan couldnt watch all of his lands at one time. Because the empire was built on the foundation of war, the empire became segmented during peace times. Officials in the government began to become very corrupt because they were imposing high taxation on their people for their own personal use. People were begining to rebel and run away to escape their poorly regulated government. Another reason the ottomans began to decline, was the governmet was running out of money to fund their wars, protect their people, and spend extravagently.
Mehmed II
also calle Mehmed the Conqueror, Murad's son, conquered Constaninople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was renamed Instanbul. He destroyed what was left of the Byzantine empire. He was a competent ruler and good warrior.
Jahangir
son of Akbar, weak ruler, married to Nur Jahan and left all of the ruling to her, intolerant
Suleyman
A superb military leader, he conquered the entire eastern Mediterranean Sea. He was known as "the lawgiver" and "the magnificent". He streamlined the government bureaucracy, simplified the system of taxation, and revamped the laws of the empire. He was followed by strong leaders who continued to expand the size and power of the empire.
Isma'il
THe safavid empire reached its height and size and grandeur during his reign. He did not accept the policy of religous tolerance. Isma'il was a sufi commander who survived fierce local struggles, took Tabriz in 1501 were he was declard shah, conquered most of persia, drove out the Ozbegs, advanced into Iraq, and ended up loosing to the ottomans. This defeat caused Isma'il to drink and seclude himself away from his people. This allowed his advisors and other powerful people in the empire to bid for power.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. Known as the greatest one, he valued military and european technology. He brought economic prosperity with cotton and textiles, set up living quarters for beggars, set up a new religion (Din-i-llahi), abolished the Jizya (the tax on the non-muslims), and allowed foreigners and local hindues to hold gov. offices.
Cultural blending
Cultural blending happens when dif. cultures interact with each other and mix. An example of this is the safavid empire. The Safavid empire grew from Persian, ottoman, and arab traditions. Blending begins at continental crossroads, trade routed/posts, and borders and is caused by migration, pursuit of religous freedom, trade, and conquest. Societies benefit only if they are willing to change and adapt. This leads to changes in language, religion, gov. styles, technology use, military tactics, racial or ethnic blending, and arts and architecture.
Prince Henry
Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration
Vasco de gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to find a direct sea route to India and claim Brazil.
Line of Demarcation
imaginarry north to south line runnig down the middle of the atlantic and granted spain the west of the line and portugal the east. Later this caused the treaty of Tordesillas.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Kabuki
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors), Originates in the 1600s and is still very popular in Japan today. At first it is more of an erotic dance and fashion show. The Japanese government outlawed women to perform in the show because of its prostitution theme. Many families are involved in the Kabuki plays for centuries.
Haiku
3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5) usually focusing on nature
Tokugawa Shogunate
shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Explorations beginnings
The spirit of the Renaissance casued people to want to explore and recieve the Glory and gold, and spread christianity.
Dutch exploration
The dutch had the largest navy at the time and also wanted to vie for power. They founded the Dutch East India Company which was allowed to create their own army, coin money, and make treaties.
Hernando Cortez
A brash and determined Spanish adventurer, Hernando Cortez crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, Cortez had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. (p.508-510)
Slave trade
The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people as slaves
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Mercantilism
The economic theory that a country's power is based on its wealth. The goals of Mercantilism included accumulating as much gold and silver as possible, have a favorable balance of trade, want to become self sufficient (the reason why colonies were so important.)
Charles VI
(r. 1711-40) Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.
Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs, mother of Marie Antoinette, had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended to the throne
Gloriuos Revolution
provided plotical stablity, no need for revolution, allowed burghers to take ristky investments. Called the glorious revolution becasue there was no bloodshed involved.
Constitutional Monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is and defined by a constitution.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. From 1682-1696 he co-rules with his brother but then became the absolute ruler. Some of his western reforms included reduction of the boyars power, promotion of lower class men, made the first Russian newspaper, promotion of forgeign learning, state controlled church, replacment of the patriarch witht the holy Synod, appointment of the European officers in the army, heavy taxes to support the army, increase in the women's status, and the introduction of the potatoes.
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.He took the throne at age 3 and ws later married to Anastasia Romanov. During his good period, he expanded Russia, made a code of laws, and was a very just ruler. When his wife died, his bad period began. He became paranoid and accused the boyars of killing Anastasia, formed the secret police, and kills his eldest son and only competent heir to the throne.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
30 years war
(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire. Major French players included Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin.
perspective
3 dimensional showing depth.
Vernacular
everyday language of ordinary people
Secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal. These views were caused by the Renaissance.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
Edict of Worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
Humanism
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Magellan
He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain.
Pizzaro
For Spain. led a small army in an invasion of the Inca Empire. He conquered the Inca and gained huge amounts of gold and silver for himself and Spain.
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Jamestown
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
Timur the lame
conqueror from Samarkand, who burned Baghdad crushing Ottoman forces at Battle of ankara in 1402, halting expansion of Ottoman Empire
Osman
known as the most successful warrior (ghazi) built a small muslim state in Anatoia between 1330-1326.Fater of the second Ottoman leader,OrkhanI. Creditited with the founding of the Ottoman empire.
Selim the Grim
Mehmed's grandson; captured Mecca and Medina and Cairo; effective sultan/great general, After Isma'il destroyed the Sunni population in Baghdad, _Selim the grim__ responded by killing 40,000 Shi'a throughout the Ottoman Empire.
John Lock
Believed that we as humans have natural rights 1. Life 2. Liberty 3. Property. He also thought that if the government wasn't protecting these rights for you, then you had the right to overthrow it. He belief was that the power of the government came from the people.
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Rousseau
believed in individual freedom and direct democracy.
Thomas Hobbs
Believed that all humans are greedy and that they need an absolute government to watch over them and give them law and order. Designeed te social contract were citizens agree to give over totall power to their monarch.
Voltaire
Believed in the freedoms of speech and religion and fought for tolerance. "I may not agree with what you are saying, but I will fight for your right to say it."
Phillip II
Was a shy and suspicious defended of Catholicism who fought the ottomans, was defeated by the English armada, and fought against the Protestants in the Netherlands (who declared their independance). Initially during his reign, Spain was very rich and able to support a large army. Their was a golden age of the arts (Greco/Velasquez and Cervantes).
Escorial
Spanish imperial palace built 1563-1584, combining a monastery, the tomb of Spanish Habsburgs, and a royal residence. The king used its size and beauty to flaunt his power.
Armada
a large fleet of war ships. During the time, England had the largest and strongest armada in the world.
Cervantes
Spanish wroter who wrote Don Quixote de La Mancha. This was the first modern European Novel.
Henry IV
Married to Henry II and Catherine de medici's daughter, was descended from King Louis IX. Inherited the throne in 1589and became the first ruler of the Bourbon Dynasty when he changed his name to Henry IV. He was decisive, clever in battle, and a clever politician. Most catholics opposed him so he converte from Protestatism to Catholicism. He set up the Edict of Nantes which allowed the Huguenots to live in peace and set houses of worship in some cities. He was devoted to rebuilding France and its prosperity so he restored the French monarchy. Son was Louis XIII.
El Greco
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human fingers and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
Decline of Spain
King Phillip's hatred of Queen Elizabeth caused him to send a fleet of ships to defeat England. This fleet, known as the spanish armada, was met by a storm on the way to England and was seriously weakened. Also, the ships were much larger than the British ships and they were to hard to manuver in a big navy battle. The defeat of the Spanish armada signified the rise of the English and the decline of the spanish as the dominant European power. From this point on, GB had one of the largest and most powerful naval fleets in the world.
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe. He encouraged religous tolerance and legal reform. Allied with Britian.
Montaigne
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Habeas Corpus
the right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime and having the right to go before a fair judge.
7 years war
This war lasted from 1756-1763. It involved Britain Prussia, Hanover, and Portugal against France, Russia, Naples, Sweden, and Spain
Charles I
Dissolved parliment often but was forced to sign the petition of rights in order to recieve more money from the treasury. He offended the Puritans and in 1637 tried to force anglican principles upon them. Gets involved in a war with spain and france and had to deal with the rebellion of the scots. from 1642-1649 the English civil war occured between supporters of charles and the puritan parliment.
Oliver Cromwell
This was the dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. Originally, he had a constitution written up, but later he ripped it up and ruled as a dictator.
Roundheads
Puritan supporters of Parliment, fighting the English Civil War from 1642-1649
Cavaliers
supporters of the King in the English Civil War
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
Yonglo
next great emperor, spreads chinese culture, sent out expensive expiditions to africa, india, southeast asia to show off their inventions; he stops the expidtions because they were very costly, he then isolates china from the rest of the world
Kangxi
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Daimyo
Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Columbian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Skepticism
the idea that nothing can be known for certain.
Richelieu
architect of French absolutism who was prominent church official, served as chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624- 1642, worked to undermine power of nobles and enhance that of the king, built large bureaucracy, attacked French Calvinists
Mazarin
Richelieu's successor regarding centralization in France, ruled France during Louis XIV's childhood. Biggest achievment= ending the 30 years war.
Louis XIII
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). Wasnt interested in running the country and instead put the country into immense wealth. In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue, Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Marie Antionette
married Louis XVI and was the Queen of France during the Reign of Terror. The pair tried to escape France in June 1791, during the Woman's march on Versailles, but were caught, arrested and brought back to Paris. They were then forced to live among the people who hated them most: the poor city folk whose hatred for her was fueled by the Queen's lavish lifestyle during the time they were starving. She was later convicted of treason and executed. She was nicknamed Madame Defecit.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
first estate
made up of clergy. Very priviliged, paid only two percent in taxes
2nd estate
Nobles, had serfs on farms, had to pay no tax 2% of the people. Detested enlightenment ideas.
3rd estate
97% everyone else (bourgeoisie) Lots of taxes and loved the enlightenment ideas.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Conservatives
sat on the right og the meeting hall, opposed more chamges in governent, trusted the king, and upheld the idea of limited monarchy
Liberals
Are open to change in government through reform
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Elba
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Scorched earth policy
military tactic where people voluntarily burn land and run away to prevent attacking groups from being sustained of their supplies
100 days
after Napoleon returned from Elba, he was only popular again for 100 days before being exiled to St. Helena for life
bastille day
a legal holiday in France celebrating the storming of the Paris bastille in 1789. happens on july 14
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Von Metternich
head of congress of vienna, was a diplomat for austria
Coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group. translated as a blow to the state.
Plebiscite
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
Concordat
Agreement between Pope and Napoleon: Napoleon recognized Catholocism as the religion of the majority of France, Pope does not ask for any land back seized during the Revolution
Nobility
a privileged class holding hereditary titles
Blockade
the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out

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