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16 terms

Rocks and Minerals

Do not use these flashcards as a substitute for the study guide. Some material cannot be simplified into flashcard form.
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Mineral
A natural solid that has its particles arranged in a crystal pattern. Formed in the mantle or deep in the crust. Made from particles that were never alive. Example uses: graphite pencils, musical instruments, coins, jewelry, cars, appliances and salt..
Properties of minerals
Scientists use these characteristics such as hardness, cleavage,luster,streak to identify a mineral.
Luster
Describes how a mineral's surface looks when light reflects from it.
Hardness
Describes to what extent a mineral can resist being scratched. This is shown using a scratch test. Harder minerals scratch softer minerals. Moh's Hardness Scale is a scratch test where 1(talc) is the softest and 10 (diamond) is the hardest.
Streak
the color of the dust or powder left behind when a mineral is scratched on a porcelain tile or a streak plate.
How minerals are used:
graphite pencils, musical instruments, coins, jewelry, cars, appliances and salt.
Rocks
Material made up of one or more minerals. Have properties that can be observed, tested and described. Can be classified into three categories: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
How rocks form
Igneous-forms from lava and magma cooling.
Sedimentary-forms frome layers of sediment being deposited and pressed together.
Metamorphic-when igneous or sedimentary rock changes due to heat and pressure.
Rock Cycle
A slow, never-ending process where rocks are formed, changed, and reformed over long periods of time. Processes involved include heat, pressure, compaction, cementing,melting, erosion.
Metamorphic
A rock that has been changed by high heat and great pressure. Changed Rock. Examples include: marble, gneiss and slate.
Igneous
Rocks that have been melted by Earth's heat and then cooled (or hardened) over a long period of time. New rock. Examples include: basalt, obsidian and pumice.
Sedimentary
Forms when rock pieces and layers are deposited over time and pressed together. Fossils are most commonly found in this type of rock. Examples include: sandstone, limestone and shale.
Cleavage
A mineral's ability to split easily along flat , even surfaces.
Fracture
A mineral's tendency to split along uneven surfaces.
Moh's Hardness Scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest. Diamond is the hardest and Talc is the softest.
The letters S,I,N,C,E help us identify minerals because
S- Solid
I-Inorganic
N-Naturally Occurring
C-Chemical Composition
E-Elements