HND 475 Test 1
Terms in this set (44)
What is the first line of treatment for amenorrhea related to low body weight?
True or False?
Obese women tend to have higher levels of estrogen, androgens, and leptin
Which phase of the menstrual cycle occurs after ovulation?
Ovulation results from a surge in which hormone?
The hypothalamus releases which hormone in order to stimulate the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH?
After ovulation the corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen which stimulates the development of what?
A menstrual flow results from?
a drop in progesterone and estrogen levels
Which hormones trigger the production of testosterone by the testes?
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Which factor would be more likely to affect female fertility than male fertility?
poor iron status in women; alcohol for men
True or False?
For both men and women, the quality of eggs and sperm decrease somewhat with age.
What BMI is typically needed to sustain normal reproductive function in women?
Which dietary component can protect cells of the reproductive system from damage by free radicals?
Refined grain products are often fortified with folic acid to decrease rates of what?
neural tube defects
When is the rate of human growth and development highest?
the ________ accounts for 1/3 if increased energy needs of pregnancy
Weight gain recommendation for an underweight pregnant women?
Weight gain recommendation for a normal weight preg. women?
Weight gain for an overweight preg. women?
weight gain for an obese preg. women?
low levels of plasma volume expansion are associated with?
reduced fetal growth
What happens in the first half of pregnancy? the anabolic phase
what happens the catabolic phase of pregnancy?
growing; 90% of growth occurs in this phase
what does the placenta transport between mother and fetus?
gas and nutrients
Decreased conversion of glucose to glycogen to fat, low maternal utilization of glucose, and increased liver production of glucose help?
ensure a constant supply of glucose for fetal growth and development
how many additional calories are needed per day in the second trimester ?
third trimester additional energy requirements?
increased protein requirement for pregnant vegetarians?
should salt ever be restricted for a pregnant women?
all forms of hypertension in pregnancy are related to?
chronic inflammation, stress, and damage to the endothelium of blood vessels
88% of all cases of diabetes in pregnancy are ?
how many additional calories are needed if a pregnant women is having twins?
150 more regardless of trimester
AIDS may be transmitted from mother to child through?
pregnancy and breastfeeding only
What are the three functional units of the mammory gland?
alveoli, secretory cells, and myoepithelial cells
The onset of milk secretion occurs during which stage of lactogenesis?
2; this is when the milk "comes in"
what happens in lactogenesis 3?
milk becomes stable
what hormone is produced during letdown and causes the ejection of milk from the milk glands into the milk ducts?
which hormone stimulates milk production?
human milk is the only food needed by the majority of healthy infants for the first how many months?
is colostrum or stable milk supply higher in protein and lower in carbs?
what nutrient is predominant in human milk?
the dominant carbohydrate in human milk is
the major class of protein found in mature human milk is
which component of milk prevents the binding of pathogenic microorganisms, thereby preventing infection?
when it comes to breast feeding, supply =