Chapter 10 - The Muslim World
Terms in this set (40)
Muslim name for the one and only God
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
a believer or follower of Islam
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to (Yathrib) Medina
muslim house of worship
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad
A body of law governing the lives of Muslims
Nomadic herders who used camels to cross the desert; Raids for grazing land frequent warfare
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader.
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
the theologians and legal experts of Islam.
People of the Book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god.
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali.. all knew Muhammad. used the Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guides to their leadership which is why they are called this
A Muslim family who came to power of the Islam religion around 661. They moved the Muslim capital to Damascus, so they could control conquered areas easier. They also abandoned the simple life of their previous caliphs and began to surround themselves with wealth and ceremony similar to that of their non-Muslim rulers. Their actions gave rise to a fundamental division in the Muslim community. Rebel groups overthrew them in 750.
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Mainly found in Iran and a small part of Iraq. It is the state religion of Iran. A member of this group is called a Shi'ite.
a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community
A member of the more mystical third sect of Islam who believes they can achieve communication with God through mystical means.
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.
the chosen city by the Umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital.
a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling at Baghdad, a.d. 750-1258, governing most of the Islamic world and claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad.
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon
caliphate formed by Shi'a in Egypt who claimed descended from Muhammad's daughter.
were letters of credit that could be exchanged for cash in Muslims banks
Capital of Muslim Spain, an economic center, hundreds of workshops, culture and learning flourished there
The Muslim classification used for Hindus, Christians, and Jews; they were allowed to follow their religions but had to pay a special tax
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
House of Wisdom
a combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad. It was founded by Caliph al-Ma'mun in the early 800s. There, scholars of different cultures and beliefs worked side by side translating text from Greece, India, Persia, and elsewhere in Arabic. Scholars there included researchers, editors, linguists, and technical advisers.
set up famous "House of Wisdom" in Baghdad with library, observatory, and scientific academy
The Thousand and One Nights
Popular collection of Muslim folktales
this became Islam's highest art form, art of beautiful handwriting
images of living beings
Muslims are discouraged from making images of these, especially that of the holiest prophet. It is thought to be disrespectful to the perfection of Allah's creation.
A muslum physician who wrote about surgery, smallpox, and measles.
today called algebra; invented by Muslim Al-Khwarizmi who studied Indian resources
Considered the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages, wrote the "book of optics"
Muslim philosopher who blended Aristotle and Plato's views with Islam