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What feature did Albrecht Dürer add to the Italian Renaissance style that influenced him?

A more rugged, linear style

Which artist wrote Four Books of Human Proportion?


Which artist became famous for woodcuts and engravings, such as his portrait of Erasmus?


In the engraving process, a burin is

The instrument used to cut an image into a metal plate

Albrecht Dürer's engraving Melencolia helped to develop the concept of the artist as

A gloomy genius

Which artist created the Isenheim Altarpiece?


How did Grünewald's depiction of the Crucifixion differ from earlier examples of that motif?

in its depiction of Jesus as an abstract form instead of a human figure

The interior of the Isenheim Altarpiece depicts

hideous depictions of the suffering of the damned in Hell.

Which High Renaissance artist became the court painter to Henry VIII in 1533 and painted a famous portrait of the king in c. 1540?


Which artist was best known for his portraits, such as one of his close friend Martin Luther (1533), as well as for his landscapes?


What Netherlandish qualities did Holbein combine with German linear technique?

an emphasis on human frailty, both physical and mental

The painting Netherlandish Proverbs (1559) explicitly depicts

the ubiquity of folly among human beings.

Who painted Netherlandish Proverbs in 1559?


The works of Pieter Bruegel the Elder share an affinity with which humanist literary form associated with Erasmus?


The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus emphasizes

the dignity of pursuing heroic deeds, even if one fails.

Through his travels in Italy, Pieter Bruegel the Elder developed a taste for


Caterina van Hemessen is best known for her


Caterina van Hemessen's self-portrait depicts her

in the idealized form of a Classical muse.

The content of the Garden of Earthly Delights could best be described as consisting of

a testament to the human potential for growth and perfection.

The Garden of Earthly Delights seems to consist primarily of symbols warning against the sin of


In works like Ashes of Phokion, Poussin most clearly shows the influence of


Velázquez's Las Meninas is notable for all the following characteristics EXCEPT

its depiction of female nudity.

Who painted the erotic Venus with a Mirror, probably for the libertine marquis of Eliche?


De Zurbarán's Saint Serapion reflects seventeenth-century Spanish art's fascination with


Whose Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber demonstrates the precise naturalism of seventeenth-century Spanish art?


The Baroque vanitas, as exemplified by Maria van Oosterwyck's Vanitas Still Life, centered on what theme?

the danger of folly and the inevitability of decay

Which artist compared the vastness of nature to the impermanence of human achievements in works like Extensive Landscape with Ruins (1660s)?


Who painted the sweeping View of Delft (c. 1660-1661)?


Most of Vermeer's works were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

sweeping vistas of landscapes.

As seen in works like The Last Drop, Leyster departed from Hals in Leyster's

setting figures back in space rather than right against the picture frame.

Which Haarlem artist was known primarily for portraiture such as The Laughing Cavalier (1624)?


Who painted Night Watch (1642), a work that has come to be regarded as emblematic of the Dutch nation?


In the painting Belshazzar's Feast Rembrandt shows a shared affinity with Caravaggio for

dramatic lighting effects.

Which artist showed a fascination with self-portraits (including one of himself as St. Paul), which was unusual for his time?


Who painted Raising of the Cross for the central panel of a triptych in Antwerp Cathedral?


In his Venus and Adonis, Rubens departed from Classical and Renaissance depictions of nude women by making Venus

an active seducer.

Who painted the Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling painting for the vault of Il Gesù?


Which of the Caravaggisti painted Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1614-1620)?


What is tenebrism?

the use of sharply contrasting light and dark in paintings

The works of Caravaggio demonstrate all of the following EXCEPT

the use of linear perspective to draw viewers into the painting.

Who sculpted the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa for the Cornaro Chapel?


Who helped to redesign several London churches after the Great Fire, in addition to designing his most famous work, St. Paul's Cathedral?


In order to enhance his royal power, Louis XIV had a massive palace complex built in which town, to which he moved his court?


In contrast with Italian Baroque architecture, that of France favored

geometric regularity.

The piazza of St. Peter's in Rome demonstrates the Baroque taste for

involving audiences in a created space.

Which city had emerged as the artistic center of Europe by the end of the Baroque period?


In order to draw attention to its altar, the church of St. Peter's in Rome was fitted with a bronze canopy, or


Baroque art generally exhibits all the following attributes EXCEPT

the appearance of controlled linear perspective.

Where did Baroque art begin?


The Baroque style is characterized by

its unrestrained and emotional tone.

The term Bourgeois Realism is applied to works like Pipe and Jug, by which artist?


Which artist's portrait of Paul Revere is indicative of the artist's more realistic, early style, which would later become more ornate?


Which is NOT a feature of the Pilgrimage to Cythera?

It celebrates hard work and self-sacrifice.

Which is NOT a feature of Fragonard's The Swing?

religious allegory

Which artist's penchant for poking fun at manners and customs is evident in the series Marriage à la Mode?


Who designed the Residenz in Würzberg, Bavaria?


Who designed the Zwinger for Augustus the Strong?


Which artist's works had the most in common with the literature of Voltaire and Jonathan Swift?


Rococo architecture could best be described as


Benjamin West's Death of General Wolfe aroused controversy

by depicting contemporary figures in contemporary garb.

Which mythological figure was common to the paintings The Swing and Pilgrimage to Cythera, as well as the entablatures over the doorways of the Residenz?


Robert Adam's architecture was strongly influenced by

Classical excavations.

Perhaps the largest ceiling fresco was painted by Giovanni Tiepolo for which building?

the Residenz

Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill is an example of

Gothic revival.

Who painted the Neoclassical Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures?


Who designed Chiswick House?


The Wieskirche exhibited all the following characteristics EXCEPT

an elaborately ornate exterior.

Chiswick House was inspired by

Palladio's Villa Rotonda.

The Gothic revival was most closely aligned with what other movement?


Thomas Gainsborough was best known for what type of art?

portraits set in landscapes

What is the defining characteristic of Rococo style?

wit and frivolity

What was chinoiserie?

an interest in Chinese imagery and art forms

The erection of a pagoda in Kew Gardens, Middlesex, England, is a good representation of the Rococo fondness for


Who designed the Wieskirche, a pilgrimage in the foothills of the Alps?


John Locke was associated with empiricism, the belief that

all knowledge of facts derives from experience.

Whose Social Contract (1762) argued that a social contract existed between the people themselves rather than between the people and their rulers?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The German Sturm und Drang movement emphasized the indomitable power of


The tone and imagery of Joseph Wright's An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump is most closely aligned with

a vanitas scene.

Who painted Pilgrimage to Cythera?


Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's painting Self-Portrait with Two Pupils demonstrates that

Rococo art could convey serious messages.

Which is NOT a feature of Death of Marat?

an anti-revolutionary message

The Oath of the Horatii illustrates a scene from the history of


Which is NOT a feature of Napoleon Enthroned?

rough painterly strokes

The pre-Revolutionary American style of architecture is known as

Colonial Georgian.

Which architectural style emerged in the United States during the period from 1780 through 1810?


The Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix represents a tour de force of work in


Greenough's colossal marble statue of George Washington was inspired by Phidias's Early Classical sculpture of


In 1789, Jean-Antoine Houdon carved a marble portrait bust of which American diplomat, who was then serving as minister to France?


The centerpiece of Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia was

the library.

Who painted Portrait of a Negress (1800)?


Which of the following artists did NOT work for Napoleon?


The model for the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond was

the Maison Carrée.

What building served as the inspiration for the Rotunda at the University of Virginia?


The title subject of the Grande Odalisque is a

harem girl.

America's first professional sculptor was


In the painting Declaration of Independence (1817), the tallest figure—in the red vest—is

Thomas Jefferson.

The patron of the painting Declaration of Independence (1817) was

James Madison.

Who painted Declaration of Independence (1817)?


Who painted Grande Odalisque?


The painting Napoleon Enthroned demonstrates all the following artistic influences EXCEPT

the energetic movement of Baroque.

An important characteristic of Neoclassical art was its

rejection of Rococo levity.

Who painted the Oath of the Horatii (1785)?


What theme is developed through the subject matter of the Oath of the Horatii?

the virtue of placing one's country before oneself

Who painted the Death of Marat (1793)?


The Death of Marat illustrates a scene from the history of


Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass explicitly links the French general with which two historical figures?

Charlemagne and Hannibal

Who painted Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass?


Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass is painted in the tradition of

Roman equestrian portraiture.

Which feature of Roman triumphal arches was NOT incorporated into the Arc de Triomphe?

pilasters and columns

Who sculpted the Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix (1808)?


In his paintings, Goya expressed all the following themes EXCEPT

his rejection of Christianity.

Who constructed the Royal Pavilion at Brighton?


Whose Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden demonstrates a nostalgia for the past and a sense of humanity's oneness with nature?


Which artist attempted in paintings like The Oxbow to develop a "higher style of landscape" that would contain moral or religious significance?


Folk art such as Hicks's The Peaceable Kingdom tends to exhibit all of the following elements EXCEPT

references to Classical imagery.

Whose Sunrise, Yosemite Valley exemplifies the practice of luminism?


The development of aquatint opened new possibilities for artists in which medium?


Which American author is best known for a series of novels extolling Indians as "noble savages"?


Whose Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834 explored the theme of the ease with which nature could destroy man-made artifices?


The inscription in Goya's Bogeyman etching is a lesson in

child psychology.

Compared to Turner's paintings, the works of Constable evidenced

clearer lines and details.

Which artist explored the aesthetics of the sublime in his Moonwatchers series?


In his Executions of the Third of May, 1808, Goya depicts the executioners as

faceless automatons.

Whose Witches' Sabbath mocks unenlightened superstitions?


Who painted Liberty Leading the People?


Which of the following is NOT an element of Liberty Leading the People?

the rejection of French nationalism

Who painted the Death of Sardanapalus?


How is Eastern society portrayed in Death of Sardanapalus?

as opulent and passionate

What was the aim of the painting Massacre at Chios?

to arouse sympathy for the Greeks struggling to gain freedom from the Turks

Who painted the Massacre at Chios?


Delacroix's work exhibits all the following characteristics EXCEPT

precise edges.

Whose illuminated frontispiece Ancient of Days depicts God organizing the world with a compass?


From 1822 to 1823, Géricault executed a series of studies of

insane people.

Whose acknowledged masterpiece is the Raft of the Medusa (1819)?


How does gouache differ from other watercolors?

It becomes opaque when dry.

William Blake's works most clearly illustrate which element of Romanticism?

its embrace of a mystical form of Christianity

One of the few renowned Romantic sculptors was which creator of the relief Departure of the Volunteers of 1792?


The Royal Pavilion at Brighton most clearly demonstrates the Romantics' interest in

"exotic" cultures such as that of the Far East.

Which of the following was NOT an English Romantic poet?

John Constable

Romantic art was characterized by all of the following traits EXCEPT

an indifference to current events.

Over the course of the nineteenth century, which of the following entities declined in importance as patron of the arts?

the Catholic Church

Who painted The Gleaners (1857)?


An important characteristic of Realist paintings was their

emphasis on class distinctions.

The continuing influence of Romanticism on early works of Realism such as The Gleaners and The Horse Fair can be seen most clearly in the paintings' depictions of


Who painted The Horse Fair (1853)?


What feature do the paintings The Gleaners and Stone Breakers share?

the limited individualization of their human figures

Who painted Stone Breakers (1849)?


Who painted the frieze-like Burial at Ornans (1849)?


The painting Stone Breakers reflects the influence of which sociopolitical ideology on its creator?


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