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164 terms

Test 2

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What feature did Albrecht Dürer add to the Italian Renaissance style that influenced him?
A more rugged, linear style
Which artist wrote Four Books of Human Proportion?
Durer
Which artist became famous for woodcuts and engravings, such as his portrait of Erasmus?
Durer
In the engraving process, a burin is
The instrument used to cut an image into a metal plate
Albrecht Dürer's engraving Melencolia helped to develop the concept of the artist as
A gloomy genius
Which artist created the Isenheim Altarpiece?
Bosch
How did Grünewald's depiction of the Crucifixion differ from earlier examples of that motif?
in its depiction of Jesus as an abstract form instead of a human figure
The interior of the Isenheim Altarpiece depicts
hideous depictions of the suffering of the damned in Hell.
Which High Renaissance artist became the court painter to Henry VIII in 1533 and painted a famous portrait of the king in c. 1540?
Dürer
Which artist was best known for his portraits, such as one of his close friend Martin Luther (1533), as well as for his landscapes?
Tetzel
What Netherlandish qualities did Holbein combine with German linear technique?
an emphasis on human frailty, both physical and mental
The painting Netherlandish Proverbs (1559) explicitly depicts
the ubiquity of folly among human beings.
Who painted Netherlandish Proverbs in 1559?
Bruegel
The works of Pieter Bruegel the Elder share an affinity with which humanist literary form associated with Erasmus?
sermons
The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus emphasizes
the dignity of pursuing heroic deeds, even if one fails.
Through his travels in Italy, Pieter Bruegel the Elder developed a taste for
statuary.
Caterina van Hemessen is best known for her
portraiture.
Caterina van Hemessen's self-portrait depicts her
in the idealized form of a Classical muse.
The content of the Garden of Earthly Delights could best be described as consisting of
a testament to the human potential for growth and perfection.
The Garden of Earthly Delights seems to consist primarily of symbols warning against the sin of
lust.
In works like Ashes of Phokion, Poussin most clearly shows the influence of
Classicism.
Velázquez's Las Meninas is notable for all the following characteristics EXCEPT
its depiction of female nudity.
Who painted the erotic Venus with a Mirror, probably for the libertine marquis of Eliche?
Velázquez
De Zurbarán's Saint Serapion reflects seventeenth-century Spanish art's fascination with
martyrdom.
Whose Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber demonstrates the precise naturalism of seventeenth-century Spanish art?
Cotán
The Baroque vanitas, as exemplified by Maria van Oosterwyck's Vanitas Still Life, centered on what theme?
the danger of folly and the inevitability of decay
Which artist compared the vastness of nature to the impermanence of human achievements in works like Extensive Landscape with Ruins (1660s)?
Ruisdael
Who painted the sweeping View of Delft (c. 1660-1661)?
Vermeer
Most of Vermeer's works were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
sweeping vistas of landscapes.
As seen in works like The Last Drop, Leyster departed from Hals in Leyster's
setting figures back in space rather than right against the picture frame.
Which Haarlem artist was known primarily for portraiture such as The Laughing Cavalier (1624)?
Hals
Who painted Night Watch (1642), a work that has come to be regarded as emblematic of the Dutch nation?
Rembrandt
In the painting Belshazzar's Feast Rembrandt shows a shared affinity with Caravaggio for
dramatic lighting effects.
Which artist showed a fascination with self-portraits (including one of himself as St. Paul), which was unusual for his time?
Rembrandt
Who painted Raising of the Cross for the central panel of a triptych in Antwerp Cathedral?
Rubens
In his Venus and Adonis, Rubens departed from Classical and Renaissance depictions of nude women by making Venus
an active seducer.
Who painted the Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling painting for the vault of Il Gesù?
Gaulli
Which of the Caravaggisti painted Judith Slaying Holofernes (c. 1614-1620)?
Artemisia
What is tenebrism?
the use of sharply contrasting light and dark in paintings
The works of Caravaggio demonstrate all of the following EXCEPT
the use of linear perspective to draw viewers into the painting.
Who sculpted the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa for the Cornaro Chapel?
Bernini
Who helped to redesign several London churches after the Great Fire, in addition to designing his most famous work, St. Paul's Cathedral?
Wren
In order to enhance his royal power, Louis XIV had a massive palace complex built in which town, to which he moved his court?
Versailles
In contrast with Italian Baroque architecture, that of France favored
geometric regularity.
The piazza of St. Peter's in Rome demonstrates the Baroque taste for
involving audiences in a created space.
Which city had emerged as the artistic center of Europe by the end of the Baroque period?
Paris
In order to draw attention to its altar, the church of St. Peter's in Rome was fitted with a bronze canopy, or
baldachino.
Baroque art generally exhibits all the following attributes EXCEPT
the appearance of controlled linear perspective.
Where did Baroque art begin?
Italy
The Baroque style is characterized by
its unrestrained and emotional tone.
The term Bourgeois Realism is applied to works like Pipe and Jug, by which artist?
Chardin
Which artist's portrait of Paul Revere is indicative of the artist's more realistic, early style, which would later become more ornate?
Copley
Which is NOT a feature of the Pilgrimage to Cythera?
It celebrates hard work and self-sacrifice.
Which is NOT a feature of Fragonard's The Swing?
religious allegory
Which artist's penchant for poking fun at manners and customs is evident in the series Marriage à la Mode?
Hogarth
Who designed the Residenz in Würzberg, Bavaria?
Neumann
Who designed the Zwinger for Augustus the Strong?
Pöppelmann
Which artist's works had the most in common with the literature of Voltaire and Jonathan Swift?
Hogarth
Rococo architecture could best be described as
ornate.
Benjamin West's Death of General Wolfe aroused controversy
by depicting contemporary figures in contemporary garb.
Which mythological figure was common to the paintings The Swing and Pilgrimage to Cythera, as well as the entablatures over the doorways of the Residenz?
Cupid
Robert Adam's architecture was strongly influenced by
Classical excavations.
Perhaps the largest ceiling fresco was painted by Giovanni Tiepolo for which building?
the Residenz
Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill is an example of
Gothic revival.
Who painted the Neoclassical Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures?
Kauffmann
Who designed Chiswick House?
Burlington
The Wieskirche exhibited all the following characteristics EXCEPT
an elaborately ornate exterior.
Chiswick House was inspired by
Palladio's Villa Rotonda.
The Gothic revival was most closely aligned with what other movement?
Romanticism
Thomas Gainsborough was best known for what type of art?
portraits set in landscapes
What is the defining characteristic of Rococo style?
wit and frivolity
What was chinoiserie?
an interest in Chinese imagery and art forms
The erection of a pagoda in Kew Gardens, Middlesex, England, is a good representation of the Rococo fondness for
chinoiserie
Who designed the Wieskirche, a pilgrimage in the foothills of the Alps?
Zimmermann
John Locke was associated with empiricism, the belief that
all knowledge of facts derives from experience.
Whose Social Contract (1762) argued that a social contract existed between the people themselves rather than between the people and their rulers?
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The German Sturm und Drang movement emphasized the indomitable power of
nature.
The tone and imagery of Joseph Wright's An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump is most closely aligned with
a vanitas scene.
Who painted Pilgrimage to Cythera?
Watteau
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's painting Self-Portrait with Two Pupils demonstrates that
Rococo art could convey serious messages.
Which is NOT a feature of Death of Marat?
an anti-revolutionary message
The Oath of the Horatii illustrates a scene from the history of
Rome.
Which is NOT a feature of Napoleon Enthroned?
rough painterly strokes
The pre-Revolutionary American style of architecture is known as
Colonial Georgian.
Which architectural style emerged in the United States during the period from 1780 through 1810?
Federal
The Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix represents a tour de force of work in
marble.
Greenough's colossal marble statue of George Washington was inspired by Phidias's Early Classical sculpture of
Zeus.
In 1789, Jean-Antoine Houdon carved a marble portrait bust of which American diplomat, who was then serving as minister to France?
Jefferson
The centerpiece of Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia was
the library.
Who painted Portrait of a Negress (1800)?
Benoist
Which of the following artists did NOT work for Napoleon?
Trumbull
The model for the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond was
the Maison Carrée.
What building served as the inspiration for the Rotunda at the University of Virginia?
Pantheon
The title subject of the Grande Odalisque is a
harem girl.
America's first professional sculptor was
Greenough.
In the painting Declaration of Independence (1817), the tallest figure—in the red vest—is
Thomas Jefferson.
The patron of the painting Declaration of Independence (1817) was
James Madison.
Who painted Declaration of Independence (1817)?
Trumbull
Who painted Grande Odalisque?
Ingres
The painting Napoleon Enthroned demonstrates all the following artistic influences EXCEPT
the energetic movement of Baroque.
An important characteristic of Neoclassical art was its
rejection of Rococo levity.
Who painted the Oath of the Horatii (1785)?
David
What theme is developed through the subject matter of the Oath of the Horatii?
the virtue of placing one's country before oneself
Who painted the Death of Marat (1793)?
David
The Death of Marat illustrates a scene from the history of
France.
Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass explicitly links the French general with which two historical figures?
Charlemagne and Hannibal
Who painted Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass?
David
Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass is painted in the tradition of
Roman equestrian portraiture.
Which feature of Roman triumphal arches was NOT incorporated into the Arc de Triomphe?
pilasters and columns
Who sculpted the Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix (1808)?
Canova
In his paintings, Goya expressed all the following themes EXCEPT
his rejection of Christianity.
Who constructed the Royal Pavilion at Brighton?
Nash
Whose Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden demonstrates a nostalgia for the past and a sense of humanity's oneness with nature?
Constable
Which artist attempted in paintings like The Oxbow to develop a "higher style of landscape" that would contain moral or religious significance?
Cole
Folk art such as Hicks's The Peaceable Kingdom tends to exhibit all of the following elements EXCEPT
references to Classical imagery.
Whose Sunrise, Yosemite Valley exemplifies the practice of luminism?
Bierstadt
The development of aquatint opened new possibilities for artists in which medium?
etching
Which American author is best known for a series of novels extolling Indians as "noble savages"?
Cooper
Whose Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834 explored the theme of the ease with which nature could destroy man-made artifices?
Turner
The inscription in Goya's Bogeyman etching is a lesson in
child psychology.
Compared to Turner's paintings, the works of Constable evidenced
clearer lines and details.
Which artist explored the aesthetics of the sublime in his Moonwatchers series?
Friedrich
In his Executions of the Third of May, 1808, Goya depicts the executioners as
faceless automatons.
Whose Witches' Sabbath mocks unenlightened superstitions?
Goya
Who painted Liberty Leading the People?
Delacroix
Which of the following is NOT an element of Liberty Leading the People?
the rejection of French nationalism
Who painted the Death of Sardanapalus?
Delacroix
How is Eastern society portrayed in Death of Sardanapalus?
as opulent and passionate
What was the aim of the painting Massacre at Chios?
to arouse sympathy for the Greeks struggling to gain freedom from the Turks
Who painted the Massacre at Chios?
Delacroix
Delacroix's work exhibits all the following characteristics EXCEPT
precise edges.
Whose illuminated frontispiece Ancient of Days depicts God organizing the world with a compass?
Blake
From 1822 to 1823, Géricault executed a series of studies of
insane people.
Whose acknowledged masterpiece is the Raft of the Medusa (1819)?
Géricault
How does gouache differ from other watercolors?
It becomes opaque when dry.
William Blake's works most clearly illustrate which element of Romanticism?
its embrace of a mystical form of Christianity
One of the few renowned Romantic sculptors was which creator of the relief Departure of the Volunteers of 1792?
Rude
The Royal Pavilion at Brighton most clearly demonstrates the Romantics' interest in
"exotic" cultures such as that of the Far East.
Which of the following was NOT an English Romantic poet?
John Constable
Romantic art was characterized by all of the following traits EXCEPT
an indifference to current events.
Over the course of the nineteenth century, which of the following entities declined in importance as patron of the arts?
the Catholic Church
Who painted The Gleaners (1857)?
Millet
An important characteristic of Realist paintings was their
emphasis on class distinctions.
The continuing influence of Romanticism on early works of Realism such as The Gleaners and The Horse Fair can be seen most clearly in the paintings' depictions of
nature.
Who painted The Horse Fair (1853)?
Bonheur
What feature do the paintings The Gleaners and Stone Breakers share?
the limited individualization of their human figures
Who painted Stone Breakers (1849)?
Courbet
Who painted the frieze-like Burial at Ornans (1849)?
Courbet
The painting Stone Breakers reflects the influence of which sociopolitical ideology on its creator?
socialism
Which of the following phrases best describes the scenes portrayed in French Realist works?
repetitive sameness
Who painted Third-Class Carriage (c. 1862)?
Daumier
Which artist made a living throughout most of his career by drawing satirical cartoons for La Caricature and La Charivari?
Daumier
At the center of Daumier's print The Freedom of the Press: Don't Meddle with It stands a heroic
member of the working class.
Daumier's print Louis Philippe as Gargantua depicts the French king as
an insatiable giant who gorges himself while the poor starve.
A lithograph is made by using a grease pencil to draw a picture on what type of surface?
limestone
The phrase "camera obscura" literally means
"dark room."
Who invented "negative" film, which made multiple prints of a single photograph possible?
Talbot
Daguerreotypes exhibited all the following characteristics EXCEPT that
the required exposure time was several hours.
Known as Nadar, which artist became known for his aerial and portrait photography?
Tournachon
What was Nadar's Le Géant?
a balloon from which he took aerial photographs
Which of the following statements best describes Julia Margaret Cameron's approach to photography?
She viewed it as a means of aesthetic expression accomplished through manipulative techniques.
Compared with the works of Nadar and Cameron, Brady's photographs of Lincoln and Lee are more
straightforward.
Who painted The Gross Clinic, an exemplary piece of American Realism?
Eakins
Tanner was known for realistic depictions of what two subjects?
African American life and biblical stories