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Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins


Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

2 categories of CHO

Complex and simplex


single sugars

3 Monosaccharides

Gluclose, Fructose, and Galactose


Building blocks of CHO; used in plant and animal tissues for quick energy; not very sweet; all CHO (except fiber) can be converted to glucose


Found in fruits and honey; sweetest of the simple sugars


Seldom occurs freely in nature; part of lactose (milk sugar)


2 simple sugars

3 Dissaccarides

Sucrose, maltose, and lactose


glucose + fructose


glucose + glucose


glucose + galactose

Lactose Intolerance

the disability to produce enough of lactase. Lactase = enzyme that splits lactose during digestion

Cause of lactose intolerance

when our body does not produce enough lactase.

Treatment of lactose intolerance

to avoid milk products or use enzyme during treated foods

digest lactose as we age

lose the ability to make lactose




grains, legumes and kernel

4 parts of Wheat Kernels

Germ, endosperm, bran, and husk


nutrient-rich part of whole grain (grows into plant)


soft inside portion that contains starch and protein; provides energy


fibrous protective coating around the kernel


outer, inedible covering of a grain (removed in "whole grain" products)


B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added to refined grains and grain products.


foods are far removed from their original state of wholeness may lack significant nutrients

refined products

iron, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin


dissolve or swell in water, cholesterol lowering, improved blood glucose control, and pectins and gums


does not dissolve in water, holds water in colon, increase bulk, stimulates muscles of GI tract and cellulose hemicellulose and lignin


Obesity; replaces calories form fat, provides satiety, and prolongs eating time because of chewiness of food


Digestive tract disorders; provide bulk and aids intestinal motility


colon cancer; speeds transit time through intestines an may protect against prolonged exposure to carcinogens


diabetes; may improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption


heart disease; may lower blood cholesterol by slowing absorption of cholesterol and binding bile


polysaccharides made of glucose


used to help maintain the blood glucose level


stored in the liver and muscles

High blood glucose

extra glucose converts to glycogen or body fat

low blood glucose

glucose released for glycogen stores

diagnose diabetes

diagnosed by testing and the symptoms

Insulin resistance

pancreas unable to make insulin to meet needs

Type 2 diabetes change

overtime by the increase in obesity in the nation over the years

Complication of controlled diabetes

eye disease, kidney disease, nerve disease, sexual problems, heart disease, coronary and carotid artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease

5 artificial sweeteners

acesulfame-K; aspartame; neotame; saccharin; and sucralose


sunett/sweet one


Equal/nutra sweet


Sweet N Low/Sweet Twin/ Sugar twin



3 classifications of lipids

triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols

Functions of fat in the body

Concentrated form of calories; serve as an energy reserve; major components of cell membranes; insulated the body; and nourishes skin and hair

Functions of fat in the food

provide calories; provide satiety; carry fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids; and contributed aroma and flavor

Structure of triglyceride

glycerol + 3 fatty acids

fatty acids

chain of carbon and hydrogen; contain an acid group (COOH); chain length = # of carbon atoms hooked together; saturation = # of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid

Saturated FA

harder the fat on the outside, the more damage it is doing . They are found in animals foods as well as tropical oil.

Unsaturated FA

less damaging. They are found both in animal and plant sources

2 essential FA

linoleic and linolenic acid

Linoleic acid

Omega 6; a pufa and abundant in vegetable oil

linolenic acid

Omega 3; a pufa and abundant in fish oil, flax seeds

Omega 3 FA

Lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides; slower clot-forming rates; enhance defense against cancer; reduce inflammation in arthritis and asthma suffers


more single bonds, solid and texture in solid


more liquids it is at room temp. the more unsaturated the fat the more voluble it is.


Have a water soluble head and fat soluble tail


acts as an emulsifier (allows fat to suspend in water)


different from other fats because it doesn't have the same 3 carbon glycerol with FA and it has a ring structure. It has a nucleus


used for incorporated into all our cell membranes, it makes bile, makes sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone), made into vitamin D, and deposited in artery walls, leading to plaque build up and heart disease.

4 Lipoproteins

Chylomicron; very low density; low density; and high density

Very low density lipoproteins

carries fat packaged or made by the liver to various body tissue

Low density lipoproteins

carries cholesterol (much of it synthesized in the liver) to body cells

High density lipoproteins

carries cholesterol in the blood back to the liver for recycling or disposal

Cause of injuries to the arteries

accumulation of cholesterol-loaded foam cells-plaque formation

Factors to cause injury

High LDL blood cholesterol level; Low HDL blood cholesterol level; high blood pressure; cigarette smoking; obesity; physical inactivity; diabetes; and atherogenic diet


an enzyme located on the surface of fat cells that enable the cell to convert blood triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol


made of compounds of carbons, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms, some also contain sulfur atoms.

amino acid

amine group (nitrogen-contianing group), acid group (COOH), and chemical side chain

amino acids


Essential AA

considered when the body cannot make them and ~9 amino acids are essential

protein bonds

peptide bond

proteins made

cells put the amino acids together in the order necessary to produce the particular proteins the need

Missing AA

The will break down muscle and tissue. The body will literally eat itself.

complimentary proteins

2 or more food proteins whose AA assortments provide all of the essential AA


some but not all groups of animals-derived products, such as meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are included in this diet


milk and milk products and eggs are included in this diet, but meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.


Possible limiting nutrient: iron


milk and milk products and eggs are included in this diet, but meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.


Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin


eggs are included in this diet, but milk and milk products, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.


Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin

Strict vegetarian/vegan

all animal-derived foods, including meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are excluded for this diet.

Strict vegetarian/vegan

Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B12, Omega-3 FA, high-quality protein

Macrobiotic diet

extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of legumes, whole grans, and certain vegetables

Macrobiotic diet

when taken extremes, includes only brown rice and water or herbal teas and can cause malnutrition and death

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