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90 terms

Macronutrients

Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins
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Carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
2 categories of CHO
Complex and simplex
Monosaccharides
single sugars
3 Monosaccharides
Gluclose, Fructose, and Galactose
Gluclose
Building blocks of CHO; used in plant and animal tissues for quick energy; not very sweet; all CHO (except fiber) can be converted to glucose
Fructose
Found in fruits and honey; sweetest of the simple sugars
Galactose
Seldom occurs freely in nature; part of lactose (milk sugar)
Dissaccarides
2 simple sugars
3 Dissaccarides
Sucrose, maltose, and lactose
Sucrose
glucose + fructose
maltose
glucose + glucose
lactose
glucose + galactose
Lactose Intolerance
the disability to produce enough of lactase. Lactase = enzyme that splits lactose during digestion
Cause of lactose intolerance
when our body does not produce enough lactase.
Treatment of lactose intolerance
to avoid milk products or use enzyme during treated foods
digest lactose as we age
lose the ability to make lactose
Polysaccharides
starch
Polysaccharides
grains, legumes and kernel
4 parts of Wheat Kernels
Germ, endosperm, bran, and husk
germ
nutrient-rich part of whole grain (grows into plant)
endosperm
soft inside portion that contains starch and protein; provides energy
bran
fibrous protective coating around the kernel
husk
outer, inedible covering of a grain (removed in "whole grain" products)
enriched
B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added to refined grains and grain products.
enriched
foods are far removed from their original state of wholeness may lack significant nutrients
refined products
iron, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin
soluble
dissolve or swell in water, cholesterol lowering, improved blood glucose control, and pectins and gums
insoluble
does not dissolve in water, holds water in colon, increase bulk, stimulates muscles of GI tract and cellulose hemicellulose and lignin
insoluble/soluble
Obesity; replaces calories form fat, provides satiety, and prolongs eating time because of chewiness of food
insoluble
Digestive tract disorders; provide bulk and aids intestinal motility
insoluble
colon cancer; speeds transit time through intestines an may protect against prolonged exposure to carcinogens
soluble
diabetes; may improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption
soluble
heart disease; may lower blood cholesterol by slowing absorption of cholesterol and binding bile
glycogen
polysaccharides made of glucose
glycogen
used to help maintain the blood glucose level
glycogen
stored in the liver and muscles
High blood glucose
extra glucose converts to glycogen or body fat
low blood glucose
glucose released for glycogen stores
diagnose diabetes
diagnosed by testing and the symptoms
Insulin resistance
pancreas unable to make insulin to meet needs
Type 2 diabetes change
overtime by the increase in obesity in the nation over the years
Complication of controlled diabetes
eye disease, kidney disease, nerve disease, sexual problems, heart disease, coronary and carotid artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease
5 artificial sweeteners
acesulfame-K; aspartame; neotame; saccharin; and sucralose
Acesulfame-K
sunett/sweet one
Aspartame
Equal/nutra sweet
Saccharin
Sweet N Low/Sweet Twin/ Sugar twin
Sucralose
splenda
3 classifications of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols
Functions of fat in the body
Concentrated form of calories; serve as an energy reserve; major components of cell membranes; insulated the body; and nourishes skin and hair
Functions of fat in the food
provide calories; provide satiety; carry fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids; and contributed aroma and flavor
Structure of triglyceride
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
fatty acids
chain of carbon and hydrogen; contain an acid group (COOH); chain length = # of carbon atoms hooked together; saturation = # of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid
Saturated FA
harder the fat on the outside, the more damage it is doing . They are found in animals foods as well as tropical oil.
Unsaturated FA
less damaging. They are found both in animal and plant sources
2 essential FA
linoleic and linolenic acid
Linoleic acid
Omega 6; a pufa and abundant in vegetable oil
linolenic acid
Omega 3; a pufa and abundant in fish oil, flax seeds
Omega 3 FA
Lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides; slower clot-forming rates; enhance defense against cancer; reduce inflammation in arthritis and asthma suffers
Saturation
more single bonds, solid and texture in solid
Unsaturation
more liquids it is at room temp. the more unsaturated the fat the more voluble it is.
Phospholipids
Have a water soluble head and fat soluble tail
Lecithin
acts as an emulsifier (allows fat to suspend in water)
Cholesterol
different from other fats because it doesn't have the same 3 carbon glycerol with FA and it has a ring structure. It has a nucleus
Cholesterol
used for incorporated into all our cell membranes, it makes bile, makes sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone), made into vitamin D, and deposited in artery walls, leading to plaque build up and heart disease.
4 Lipoproteins
Chylomicron; very low density; low density; and high density
Very low density lipoproteins
carries fat packaged or made by the liver to various body tissue
Low density lipoproteins
carries cholesterol (much of it synthesized in the liver) to body cells
High density lipoproteins
carries cholesterol in the blood back to the liver for recycling or disposal
Cause of injuries to the arteries
accumulation of cholesterol-loaded foam cells-plaque formation
Factors to cause injury
High LDL blood cholesterol level; Low HDL blood cholesterol level; high blood pressure; cigarette smoking; obesity; physical inactivity; diabetes; and atherogenic diet
LDL
an enzyme located on the surface of fat cells that enable the cell to convert blood triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
proteins
made of compounds of carbons, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms, some also contain sulfur atoms.
amino acid
amine group (nitrogen-contianing group), acid group (COOH), and chemical side chain
amino acids
20
Essential AA
considered when the body cannot make them and ~9 amino acids are essential
protein bonds
peptide bond
proteins made
cells put the amino acids together in the order necessary to produce the particular proteins the need
Missing AA
The will break down muscle and tissue. The body will literally eat itself.
complimentary proteins
2 or more food proteins whose AA assortments provide all of the essential AA
Semivegetarian
some but not all groups of animals-derived products, such as meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are included in this diet
Lacto-vegetarian
milk and milk products and eggs are included in this diet, but meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.
Lacto-vegetarian
Possible limiting nutrient: iron
Lacto-ovovegetarian
milk and milk products and eggs are included in this diet, but meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.
Lacto-ovovegetarian
Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin
Ovovegetarian
eggs are included in this diet, but milk and milk products, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood are excluded.
Ovovegetarian
Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin
Strict vegetarian/vegan
all animal-derived foods, including meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are excluded for this diet.
Strict vegetarian/vegan
Possible limiting nutrients: iron, vitamin D, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B12, Omega-3 FA, high-quality protein
Macrobiotic diet
extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of legumes, whole grans, and certain vegetables
Macrobiotic diet
when taken extremes, includes only brown rice and water or herbal teas and can cause malnutrition and death