-everyone born in the U.S. is a citizen
-An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their Vindication.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens, of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall have the same right, in every State and Territory in the United States, to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, and penalties, and to none other, any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, to the contrary notwithstanding.
"On May 1, 2 and 3, 1866, mobs of white men lead by law enforcement attacked black people in the area near South St. By the end of the attack mobs had killed an estimated 46 black people, raped several black women, and committed numerous robberies, assaults and arsons. A congressional investigative committee reported that 4 churches, 12 schools, and 91 other dwellings were burned. Although no one was ever prosecuted for this massacre, it became a rallying cry in the battle over the nation's reconstruction following the Civil War. Ultimately, the outrage that followed the massacre helped to ensure the adoption of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution." -Response to Gilded Age
-Urban, middle-class, educated whites (women)
-Examples of progressive reform: settlement house movement, housing reform, sanitation reform, labor reform (women & children), expanding democracy, regulating capitalism, women's suffrage, prohibition, and anti-prostitution crusade.
-Variety of goals, variety of influences: environment over Social Darwinism, socialism, and the Social Gospel
-dislike corruption and waste within government
-rejected social Darwinism
1. Control corporations: Good trusts vs. bad trusts, 1902: Northern Securities Co., Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Northern Securities Co v US, 44 trusts busted (1901-1909)
2.. Consumer protection: Beef trust (Swift & Co.), Meat Inspection Act (1906), Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
3. Conservation of natural resources: Water conservation, forest preservation, and wildlife protection, 230 million acres of public land, 150 million acres national forests, 51 federal bird reserves, 4 national game preserves, 5 national parks, 18 national monuments.
-The election was a rare four-way contest. Incumbent President William Howard Taft was renominated by the Republican Party with the support of its conservative wing. After former President Theodore Roosevelt failed to receive the Republican nomination, he called his own convention and created the Progressive Party (nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party"). It nominated Roosevelt and ran candidates for other offices in major states. Democrat Woodrow Wilson was finally nominated on the 46th ballot of a contentious convention, thanks to the support of William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate who still had a large and loyal following in 1912. It is the last election in which a former, or incumbent, President (Roosevelt) ran for the office without being nominated as either a Democrat or Republican. It is also the last election in which an incumbent President running for re-election (Taft) failed to finish either first or second in the popular vote count.
Wilson won the election, gaining a large majority in the Electoral College and winning 42% of the popular vote, while Roosevelt won 27%, Taft 23% and Debs 6%. Wilson became the only elected president from the Democratic Party between 1896 and 1932, and the second of only two Democrats to be elected president between 1860 and 1932. This was the last election in which a candidate who was not a Republican or Democrat came second in either the popular vote or the Electoral College, and the first election in which all 48 states of the contiguous United States participated.
-25,000 members: Carnegie, Addams, Gompers, Twain, and DuBois
"We hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. We insist that the subjugation of any people is "criminal aggression" and open disloyalty to the distinctive principles of our Government..."
-criticizing American Imperialism because the U.S. didn't want to be a colony, so other places won't either. contradicts liberty.
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, is a civil rights organization founded in 1909 to fight prejudice, lynching, and Jim Crow segregation, and to work for the betterment of "people of color." W. E.B. DuBois and Ida B. Wells were among the original founders, along with other prominent civil rights activists, both black and white. The NAACP and its legal defense fund were instrumental in landmark civil rights victories such as Brown v. Board of Education (for which they provided the winning lawyer, Thurgood Marshall) and the Montgomery bus boycott. Historically, the NAACP favored using the courts rather than the civil disobedience used by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, though the approaches proved generally complementary, and both groups continue today.