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Terms in this set (19)
Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments.
Ethical appeal. One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Ethos is basically an appeal to credibility. The writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue.
An appeal to reason/logic. Logos is one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. It occurs when a writer tries to convince you of the logic of his argument.
An appeal to emotion. This is one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Typically, pathos arguments may use loaded words to make you feel guilty, lonely, worried, insecure, angry or confused.
Inductive reasoning (induction)
Movement from the specific to the general. When using ______, a person looks at specific examples and tries to identify a pattern or trend that fits the given examples in order to determine a general rule. Commonly used in scientific study.
Deductive reasoning (deduction)
Movement from the general to the specific. The method of argument in which specific statements and conclusions are drawn from general principles.
A mistake in reasoning
In an argument, an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. From the Latin meaning "against the man."
Reducto ad Absurdum
Latin for "to reduce to the absurd." Useful technique for producing a comical effect.
Begging the question
An argumentative ploy where the arguer sidesteps the question or the conflict, evading or ignoring the real question.
An argument technique wherein the opposing arguments are anticipated and countered.
Latin for "it does not follow." when one statement isn't logically connected to another.
Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack. This diverts attention from the real issues.
An idea or course of action which will lead to something unacceptable, wrong, or disastrous.
Asking a question that has an assumption built into it so that it cannot be answered without making one appear guilty. "Do you still beat your girlfriend?"
Also called vox populi, this argument is the "everyone's doing it" fallacy; appeals to a person's desire to be like everyone else
AKA an either/or fallacy; the suggestion is made in the argument that the problem or debate only has two solutions.
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue
Describing a situation of logical and apparent equivalence, when in fact there is none.
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