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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Vocab Final-1st 9 weeks
Terms in this set (75)
"Mad Anthony" Wayne
Was a United States Army officer, statesman, and member of the United States House of Representatives
Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assumption of state debts which went into affect in 1790, and excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt.
Articles of Confederation
1781: First American Constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not grated the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The document was replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Captain John Smith
This leader uttered "he who will not work, will not eat" and was credited with successfully leading the first successful English colony.
Dominion of New England
Administrative Union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, who curbed popular assemblies, taxes residents with their consent, and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. It's collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control.
Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in the new Constitution would safeguard the people's liberties.
an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, and especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism.
House of Burgesses
Representative parliamentary assembly created to govern Virginia, establishing a precedent for government in the English colonies.
Established Georgia primarily as a debtor colony.
was an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the United States, the first Vice President, and as a Founding Father was a leader of American independence from Great Britain.
The man credited with importing to Jamestown the tobacco crop that "saved" it.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the sale of land in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt.
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, most notably in Mexico.
New England Confederation
1643: weak Union of the colonies on the Massachusetts and Connecticut led by Puritans for the purpose of defense and organization; an early attempt at self-government during the benign neglect of the English Civil War.
Became an anti federalist. Felt the drafted constitution was destroying all liberty
Was also known as The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizer a on the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico , present day New Mexico. The Pueblo Revolt killed 500 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish returned and were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition.
Religious group known for tolerance, emphasis on peace, and idealistic Indian policy, who settled heavily in Pennsylvania in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Early proponent of religious freedom and tolerance and established the Providence Plantation and also the American Baptist Church.
Key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration.
Sir Francis Drake
English sea captain, famous for attacking the Spanish Armada.
1774: non important agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for the complete boycott of the British goods.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed in 1494, and authenticated at Setubal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese ) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and Leon), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola)
"Large state " proposal for the constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and this promoted smaller states to come back with their own plan for appointing representation.
Was an English Separatist in the Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact while aboard the Mayflower in 1620.
Act of Toleration
1649, passed in Maryland, toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus. Ensured Maryland's attraction to Catholics.
Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. Gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to.
Native American empire that controlled present day Mexico until 1521 when they were by Spanish Hernan Cortes. They maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute. They came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the Constitution, this was added in 1791 when it was adopted by the necessary number of states. It guarantees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religion. Written by James Madison
The transfer of goods, crops, and diseases as the result of contact between the New and Old Worlds after 1492.
Spanish government's policy to "commend", or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to CHristianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
1610-1614: Series of clashes in Virginia, English torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaign against the Irish.
1787- Popular terms for the measure that reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia Plans at the Constitutional Convention, giving states proportional representation in the House of Representatives and equal representation in the Senate. The compromise broke the stalemate at the convention and paved the way for subsequent compromise over slavery and the Electoral College
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. They developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
First permanent English colonies in North America, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company.
He was an American merchant, smuggler, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence.
Was a wealthy English Puritan lawyer one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in what is now New England after Plymouth Colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630:Established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential colony in New England
On June 30, 1520, was an important event during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, wherein Hernan Cortes and his army of Spanish conquistadors and native allies fought their way out of the Mexican capital at Tenochtitlan following the death of the Aztec king Moctezuma II, whom the Spaniards had been holding as a hostage, after the Aztec Army slaughtered Cortez's force of conquistadors.
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish: Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area north of Florida. (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic success) Jay Treaty helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Orleans.
Legal principle that the oldest son inherits all the family's property. This system encouraged the establishment of colonies in the New World.
1768-1771: Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite.
Salem Witch Trials
1692-1693: Series of witchcraft trails launched after a group of adolescent girls in Massachusetts, claimed to have been possessed by certain older women of the town. 20 individuals were put to death before the trails were put to an end by the governor of Massachusetts.
Small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of England; after initially setting in Holland, a number of English Separatist made their way to Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts.
Sons/ Daughters of Liberty
Patriotic group(s) that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non importation agreements.
1788: Collection of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out the federalists' arguments in favor of the new Constitution. Since their publication, these influential essays have served as an important source for constitutional interpretation.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These were secretly made to get the rights back taken away from the Alien and Sedition Acts. These also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom
1786: Measure enacted by the Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship. Served as a model for the religion clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of a middle colony that was based on "brotherly love" and fair treatment of Natives. His "Frame of Government " was an important step in the development of American democracy.
1754- Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.
Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, they cast the document as anti-democratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government, and feared encroachment on individuals' liberties in the absence of a Bill of Rights.
Bank of the United States
was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress
(ca. 1100 c.e.)- Mississippian settlement near present day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.
Committee of Correspondence
1772 and after: Local committees established across Massachusetts, and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.
A document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. This document was rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
1639: drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, this document was the first "modern constitution" establishing a democratically controlled government. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut's colonial charter and, later its state constitution
Great English Migration
1630-42: 72,000 refugees from England to North America colonies; primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20,000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose- to establish a model Christian settlement in the New World
Bound together five tribes- Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayuga, and Seneca in the Mohawk Valley of New York.
Offered little concessions from Britain to the US and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on US soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners especially, were angry and rioted and called the "Damn'd Arch Traitor".
was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This created the judiciary branch of the US Government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
1620- Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed abroad the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony.
issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
1787- Created a policy for administrating the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories.
Was a Virginia Native America notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. Daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief.
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the CHurch of England of Catholic rituals and creeds. Some of the most devout Puritans believed that only"Visible saints: should be admitted to church memberships.
Robert de La Salle
French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
1644-46, Last ditch effort by Native Americans to dislodge the Virginia settlement. The resulting peace treaty resulted in a splitting of the white and Indian areas of settlement.
1786- So this dude named Daniel didn't want to pay his taxes. He got some of his buds together to agree not to pay their taxes either and throw a huge fit. They straight got shut down, but people still got scared that mob-rule would rule the day so they decided something needed to be done about those weak Articles.
Fleet defeated by the English Channel in 1588- marking the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America
English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I that allowed to found the colony
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange." Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
1734-35: New York libel case against the government. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel.
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