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APES Chapter 8 Vocab
Chapter 8 Vocab for Rissberger's apes class at CHHS.
Terms in this set (63)
structure (spatial distribution)
... property of a community or ecosystem that organizes its individuals
Relative sizes, stratification, and distribution of its populations and species
species diversity (richness)
...number of different species
number of individuals of each species...
number of ecological niches, how they resemble or differ from each other, and how they interact...
differences in physical structure and physical properties at boundaries and in ecotones...
latitudinal species diversity gradient
species diversity on continents decreases steadily with distance from the equator toward either pole...
depth-species diversity gradient
in marine communities species diversity increases from the surface to a depth of 2000 meters and then begins to decline with depth until the deep sea bottom is reached where species diversity is very high ...
degree of isolation
how isolated a pop is...
species equilibrium model
model saying that the number of species found on an island is determined by a balance of the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which species become extinct on the island...
theory of island biogeography
same thing as species equilibrium model...
national parks surrounded by a sea of developed and fragmented land...
species that have naturally evolved in an area
Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans.
species that serve as early warnings that a community or an ecosystem is being damaged...
species whose role in an ecosystem is much more important than their abundance or biomass suggests...
competition between members of the same species for the same resources...
competition between members of two or more different species for food, space, or any other limited resource...
organisms patrol or mark an area around their home, nesting, or major feeding site and defend it against members of their own species...
competition where one species may limit another's access to some resource, regardless of its abundance ...
competing species have almost equal access to a specific resource but differ in how fast or efficiently they exploit it...
competitive exclusion principle
the niches of two species cannot overlap completely or significantly for very long...
the dividing up of scarce resources so that species with similar needs use them at different times, in different ways, or in different places...
members of one species feed directly on all or part of a living organism of another species...
one species feeds on another species...
having certain shapes or colors to disguise themselves from predators...
prey species discourage predators with chemicals that are poisonous, irritating, foul smelling, or bad tasting...
brightly colored advertising that enables experienced predators to recognize and avoid them...
looking and acting like something poisonous or dangerous ...
one species feeds on part of another organism...
feeds on the host...
is fed on by the parasite...
symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit...
..., the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.
..., both parts of the lichen (the algae and fungi) benefit as the fungi provides a home for the algae, which produces food for both of them
hardy species that can grow on trees or barren rocks...
a type of bacteria that convert nitrogen into a form usable by plants...
symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits while the other is not harmed...
plants that attach themselves to the trunks or branches of large trees...
the gradual change in species composition of a given area...
involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities on nearly lifeless ground...
more common type of succession where species colonize an area and their populations become more numerous or decline and disappear...
...plants that attach themselves to inhospitable patches of bare rock (lichens, mosses etc.)
early successional plant species
... grow close to the ground, have short lives, and can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions
midsuccessional plant species
herbs, grasses, low shrubs...
late successional plant species
trees that can tolerate shade...
occurs when one set of species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements and is especially important in the soil-building stages of primary succession...
early species hinder the establishment and growth of other species...
late successional plants are largely unaffected by plants at earlier stages of succession...
a change in environmental conditions that disrupts an ecosystem or community...
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
hypothesis that says communities that experience fairly frequent but moderate disturbances have the greatest species diversity...
..., a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
balance of nature
..., delicate balance between organisms and their environment
another term for succession ...,
another term for climax community...
sustainability for living systems...
the ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered...
same thing as inertia...
the ability of a living system such as a population to keep its numbers within the limits imposed by available resources...
the ability of a living system to bounce back after an external disturbance that is not too drastic...
..., When a threat is of serious environmental damage, we should not wait for scientific proof before taking action.
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