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Terms in this set (39)
a small relatively long-lasting group in which there is regular interaction and strong emotional ties among members
a group in which members have a few emotional ties with one another and interact to achieve a common goal or meet a common need.
groups relatively small size characterized by three criteria:
1) physical proximity of members to one another
2) perceived similarity among members
3) a shared fate among members
a two-person group
a three-person group
the links or connections that exist between individuals and among groups
expectation states theory
a theory that focuses on the relationship between performance expectations and behaviors in task groups and how the status structures of task groups, once they emerge, are reproduces through subsequent social interactions; theory out of which status characteristics theory was developed.
the hierarchy with a group, based on their subjective rankings of group members given their perceived likelihood of moving the group towards the successful completion of its goals
assessments of one's own and other group members' likely contribution to the completion of a groups assigned task.
a process in which an initial assessment of definition of a situation (whether correct or not) generates subsequent perceptions and behaviors that result in the confirmation of the initial assessment (i.e. it makes it come true)
status characteristics theory (SCT)
a subtheory within the expectations states tradition that explains how beliefs about the relative competence of groups within society ( e.g. men and women; Whites and racial/ ethnic minorities) influence the creation and maintenance of status structures (stratification) within task oriented groups.
the process through which diffuse status characteristics are associated with task-relevant abilities and thus influence performance expectations and subsequent behaviors in group settings.
tasks that are complex and require a variety go different abilities so that no individual or group can be expected to outperform others; a type of mutability intervention within the status characteristics tradition.
social exchange theory
a theoretical framework within the group process and structure face of sociological social psychology that focuses on the exchange of resources and emphasizes power in social relationships.
the ability to impose one's will power on another person
an approach within psychological social psychology that focuses on the effect of rewards and punishments on the behavior.
positive consequence (e.g. money, social acceptance) for a behavior or action.
a negative consequence (e.g. fines, withdrawal of affection) for a behavior or action
non coercive (or reward) power
the ability to impose one's will on another through the control of rewards.
imposing one's will on another through the use of punishments in a social exchange relationship
a social exchange relationship in which an actor's ability to secure desired rewards from other sources serves as a structural basis of power.
an exchange relation in which the individuals involved have equal power.
the exchange relation in which one individual has more power than the other duet possession of valued rewards and the presence of other exchange options
two or more interconnected exchange relations, where power reflects an actor in the network's exchange options versus those of other actors in the network.
negatively connected exchange network
an exchange network in which the exchange in one relation reduces the exchanges in another.
in social exchange theory, the potential rewards that are lost when an actor chooses one exchange partner over others.
an exchange in which actors bargain over resources.
investment in; within social exchange theory, continuing to exchange resources with a particular partner even if there are better options
an exchange that usually takes place over a lengthy period of time during which an individual assumes that favors or rewards will be returned but there is no guarantee that this will be the case.
when people believer that another person or group will act in their interest, either because they have an incentive ti di si, or because they care about them.
an exchange relationship in which there is a balance of rewards between relationship partners; in a equitable relationship, each partner givers rewards proportional to those received.
principle of least interest
a principle that states that the individual with th greater ability to reward (or punish) another has the least to lose should the relationship end.
social identity theory
a theoretical framework within the group process and structure orientation that emphasizes the ways that our identification within groups affects how we view ourselves and others.
within the social identity theory, a cognitive construct constructed through process of self-categorization (us vs them) that reflects people's perceived group memberships.
a group we identify with and see ourselves as a member of.
a group we perceive ourselves as not belonging to.
the cognitive dimension of social identity theory that focuses on construction of group-based social identites.
the social identities formed through the process of self-categorization in laboratory experiments when a characteristic that distinguishes between groups that is usually considered insignificant is made salient
occurs when people are exposed to something that makes certain information more readily accessible to memory.
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