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World War I

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s


a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)


German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, Japan


the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

Japanese territorial expansion in 1930s


Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

Four Freedoms

1941-Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured

United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

Cold War

Between US and USSR from 1945-1990. A political and economic stuggle between nations.

Modern World

the circumstances and ideas of the present age

Contemporary Era

Recent History, effects have been overcome

Atomic Bombs

explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions. Used in 1945.

Welfare state

a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.

Crimes Against Humanity

a category of activities, made illegal in 1945, condemning states that abuse human rights


the action of changing from colonial to independent status

Decolonization of India


Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)


North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security

Peoples Republic of China

a socialist republic ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

War in Vietnam

1945-1975. The US became involved in the war in an effort to stop the spread of communism to southeast asia.

National self-determination

The freedom of the people of a given territory to determine their own political status


an economic system based on private ownership of capital


a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)


1948 - 1994 in South Africa a racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it


dislike and/or fear of that which is unknown or different from oneself.


a hypothetical condition in which the process of globalization is complete


economies, societies, and cultures growth to a global scale

Bretton Woods System

The international monetary system developed after the Second World War it helped stabilize foreign exchange rates

World Bank

a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments

International Monetary Fund

a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies

World Trade Organization

an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade


A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.


An ideological term characterizing parties or politicians who not only advocate an end to government expansion, but also believe in reducing its role via downsizing, privatization, and deregulation

Transnational corporations

Business corporations located in two or more countries.

Southeast Asia Crisis

Southeast Asian financial markets crashed

First World

US and allies during cold war, contrast to soviets

Second World

the communist and state-planned countries of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China (Cold War)

Third World

underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively

Structural Adjustment Programs

Economic policies made by the IMF that encourage international trade.

United States Agency for International Aid

the United States federal government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid

Particularist protectionism


Universalist protectionism



private, voluntary organizations whose members are individuals or associations that come together for a common purpose (Red Cross, Green Peace, Amnesty)

Fair Trade

1992- an organized social movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries and promote sustainability.

Millennium Development Goals

eight international development goals that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015.

United Nations Declaration of Human Rights

the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled. It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws.


a belief in a strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often religious in nature), sometimes as a reaction to perceived doctrinal compromises with modern social and political life


the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals


when companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor


The relocation of production once done in the United States to foreign countries.

Sustainable growth

Economic growth and development that meets present needs without harming the needs of future generations.

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