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Earth Science Unit 2 Test Review

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What type of rock forms when heat a pressure are applied?
Metamorphic rocks
What type of rocks are formed when magma goes on top of the earth's crust as lava and hardens?
Igneous rocks
What type of rock forms when rock erodes, is carried away, deposited, and cemented together?
Sedimentary rocks
Where are you likely to find metamorphic rocks?
Convergent boundaries
How does heat and pressure determine the crystal size of a metamorphic rock?
The higher the pressure and temperature, the larger and more visible the mineral crystals will be.
What is the name of the boundary when two plates are moving apart?
Divergent
What is the name of the boundary when two plates are sliding past each other?
Transform
What is the name of the boundary when two plates are coming together?
Convergent
What type of fault and what type of stress is associated with a convergent boundary?
Reverse fault and compression stress
What type of fault and what type of stress is associated with a transform boundary?
Strike-slip fault and shear stress
What type of fault and what type of stress is associated with a divergent boundary?
Normal fault and tension stress
What types of features are found at a transform boundary?
offset geology or offset spreading
What types of features are found at a divergent boundary?
Fault-Block Mountains, Rift valleys, Volcanoes, Mid-Ocean Ridge
What types of features are found at a convergent boundary?
Volcanoes, Volcano Island Arc, Folded Mountains, Ocean Trench
Explain how a divergent boundary makes new crust.
Magma rises and is pushed out and sideways. The seafloor spreads and new crust is formed.
Rocks formed over long periods of time retain record of pole reversals. How is this possible?
Magnetic minerals in the molten rock become aligned to the magnetic field. When the rock solidifies, minerals lock in the magnetic field like many tiny compasses.
Describe how a mid-ocean ridge would look if you could see the magnetic reversals in the crust.
There would be alternating bands of rock showing the magnetic reversals over time. Both sides of the mid-ocean ridge would look exactly alike.
How can you tell the difference between new and old mountains?
New mountains are steep and jagged.
Old mountains are shorted and more rounded, smooth
What is a geothermometer?
A geothermometer is a metamorphic rock that can only form at a minimum temperature and pressure.
How is a Dome Mountain formed?
1. Magma bulges under the ground and forces the crust up.
2. The magna never breaks the surface.
3. The magma hardens into rock.
4. The layers on top of the hardened magma erode away exposing the Dome Mountain.
What does a Folded mountain look like?
Folded mountain:
What does a Fault-Block mountain look like?
Fault-Block mountain:
What does a Dome mountain look like?
Dome mountain:
What is a subduction zone?
A subduction zone is a place where one plate is sliding under another, or subducting. It happens at a convergent boundary.
Where are you likely to find Mafic minerals?
Mafic minerals are found in ocean crust.
Where are you likely to find Felsic minerals?
Felsic minerals are found in continental crust.
What is a mid-ocean ridge?
A mid-ocean ridge is a place where the ocean plates are diverging, creating more crust.
What is a rift valley?
A rift valley is a place where the continental plates are diverging, creating more crust.
What is an ocean trench?
An ocean trench is a place where two ocean plates or an ocean plate and a continental plate are converging. It is the place of the subduction zone (See "What is a subduction zone?)
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