Medical Laboratory Science Review: Mycology
Terms in this set (211)
Malassezia Furfur is a lipophilic yeast. Causes Tinea versicolor or pityriasis versicolor which is a very common dermatophytosis.
Hypopigmented macules on the trunk, scaley patches.
10% KOH preparations to diagnose. Reveals budding yeast.
Thought to cause dandruff
Seen in patients on lipid replacement therapy and causes disseminated infections
Yellow fluorescence under a woods lamp
Spaghetti and meatballs
budding yeasts (4-8 um) with septate, sometimes branched hyphal elements
Negative in routine fungal cultures
Colonies may be observed after using Olive oil.
colonies are cream colored, moist, and smooth
Piedraia hortae causes black peidra (hair infection)
Causes hard dark gritty nodules to grow on the hair shaft
Nodules contain asci (sac like structures) containing 8 ascospores.
Endemic in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
When using 10% KOH, nodules can be broken to reveal asci. Thick walled rhomboid cells containtg ascospores are seen.
Grows slowly on Sabouraud dextrose agar at RT
Brown, restricted colonies that remain sterile.
Trichosporon asahaii is the most frequent and severe of the genus in immunocompromised patients.
Trichosporon spp. are found as normal skin biota and can cause white piedra.
Other members of the genus are known to cause systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. They are rare, but usually fatal. Seen in people with hematologic malignancies and have been on chemotherapy.
Endemic in tropical regions
Produces both arthroconidia and blastoconidia
Grows rapidly on primary fungal media.
colonies are cream colored and yeastlike. smooth
confirmed ID by biochemical tests including absences of carbohydrate fermentation or utilization of potassium nitrate.
both macro and microconidia may appear globose and appear tear-shaped and measure 2.5-4 um
Microconidida are found in grape like clusters.
Macroconidia are thin walled, smooth, and cigar shaped, with four to five cells separated by parallel cross-walls. Measure 7-50 um and are produced singly on undifferentiated hyphae.
Relatively rapid growing, granular colonies
Epidermophyton floccosum only produce one size of conidia, which are macroconidia (12 to 25 um) have 3 to 15 cells.
Tapering, sometimes elongated, spiny distal ends of the macroconidia are key distinguishing factors
Colonies are white and fluffy, reverse is yellow
grows on potato dextrose agar
Contamination of blood cultures, bacteria, water dust and soil.
Most commonly seen in lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.
Found in soil and decaying vegetation
asscociated with gardening
S. schenckii is small, cigar-shped yeast.
thing delicate hyphae bearing conidia developing in a rosette pattern.
Dark walled conidia
dimorphic (22 and 37 degrees)
grows well on most culture media
to induce mycelia, must be inoculated on brain heart infusion agar supplemented with sheep red blood cells and incubated at 37 in a CO2 incubator.
P. boydii septate filamentous fungus
hyaline or dematiaceous
oval conidia singly at the tips of conidiogenous cells known as annellides.
Rapidly porducing white to dark gray colonies on potato dextrose agar at 22 and 35 degrees
mucoid clusters of single or two-celled, slightly curved conidia borne frome phialides at the tips of lon, unbranched, multiseptate conidiophores.
Conidia are held together in mucoid clusters at eh spices of the phialides.
this isolate is a hyaline, septate, filamentious mould.
Colonies grow slow and are grayish brown
Causes blastomycosis prevelent in middle aged men.
Flulike symptoms. Pulmonary disease may insue.
AKA Gilchrist disease or Chicago Disease.
North America and parts of Africa
Soil and natural environments
occurs in dogs and horses
Telemorph or sexual form of B. dermatitidis. Cannot be grown in laboratory.
Tissue or purulent material in cutaneouss skin lesions
may revel large, spherical, refractile yeast cells, 8 to 15 um in diameter, with double-contoured wall and buds connected by a broad base or calcoflour white may be used to aid examination for the presence of the yeast cells.
In the mould phase, conidia are borne on short lateral brances that are ovoid to dumbbell shaped and vary in in diameter from 2 to 10 um. Microconidia are not diagnostic.
colonies may be white, tan or brown and may be fluffy
can be confirmed using a double diffusion immunoassay to detect the exoantigens
Acquired by inhalation
Usually asymptomatic, with only sequelae being calcifications in the lungs, liver, and spleen.
Pulmonary disease with heavy exposure
can stay in host for years
Histoplasmosis aka reticuloendothelial cytomycosis, cave disease.
worldwide, endemic in Central Africa.
Micro exam reveals small yeast cells 2-5 um. When stained, they are often seen in macrophages. Resemble blastoconidia or Candida glabrata but can be differentiated by fluorescent antibody or culture
Microconidia small, one celled, round, smooth
Macroconidida large, round
white to dark tan with age
Woolly, cottony, or granular
Most virulent of all human mycotic agents
Two species: C. immitis and C. posadasii.
Asymptomatic pulmonary disease and allergic manifestations.
Symtomatic patients have fever, respiratory distress, cough, anorexia, headache, malaise, and myalgias.
Filipinos and blacks run the highest risk, more males than females
Molecular ID is needed to distinguish between species
Barrel shaped arthroconidia (2.5- 6 um) round up as they convert to spherules.
Form endospores by process known as progressive sleavage.
diagnosis is made by histopathologic means only.
Microscopic exam shoes fertile hyphae at right angles producing alternating hyaline arthroconidia.
Growth 3-4 days
White, moist, and glabrous.
Abundant aerial mycelium "bloom"
Tan to lavender mature colonies
white to beige
leathery, flate to wrinkled, folede or velvety
Colonies frequently only produce sterile hyphae
fresh isolates may produce conidia similar to those of Blastomyces
Central and south America in soil
Primary lung, granulomatous, Ucerative nasal and buccal lesions, lymph node involvement, adrenals
thick walled yeasts (15-30 um), multiple buds, Mariners wheel
yeast form: multiple blastoconidia budding from single, large yeast (15-30 um)
meningitis, pulmonary disease, and septicemia.
capsule, india ink (latex agglutination test now)
Blastoconidia only, without producing true hyphae on corn meal agar. C. neoformans is urease pos
Normal biota of the mucosa, skin, and digestive tract
yeast infections, thrush
C. glabrata second most common, difficult to treat
vasulare invasion causing thromosis and necrosis fo the tissues.
broad ribbon like hyphae with few septations
Erect sporangiophores either solitary or in groups terminate in ana apopphysis surrounded by a sporangium.
Sporangiospores are smooth and ovoid.
Rhizoids are present.
Colonies are woolly and grow rapidly
white, becoming grey-brown with age
Most common sygomycete
diabetic patients with ketoacidosis
Extremely refractory to treatment
erect sporangiophores terminated by dark sporangia and sporangiospores
umbrella shaped structure
white become grey with age
Sporangiospores are formed in sporangia on erect sporangiophores. Rhizoids are not found
Sporangia remain intact
cottony, dirty white colonies that become mousy brown to grey with age
rare, cutaneous infections
soil and decaying vegetation
erect sporangiophores are noted
can be confused with aspergillus
white and becomes grey with age
Second most isolated fungus
A. fumigatus, A terrus, and A niger are most common
high mortality rate
MOst frequent among bone marrow transplant recipients
fever and fails to respond to antifungal therapy
Fungus balls in lungs
black to white and may include yellow, brown, green, gray, pnik, beige, and tan.
Rare human isolate kaeratitis
Abundant single-celled, tear shaped sympoduloconidia are formed on sympodulae, which taper extremely from a rather swollen base.
Conidiophores may cluster in some isolates to form radial tufts
Colonies are hyaline
fluffy, powdery, reminiscent of T. mentagrophytes
recovered frome nails and skin lesions
single-celled conidia are produced on nonspecialized cells. the conidiogenous cell disintefrates to release the conidia.
arthroconidia may be seen
colonies are hyaline with a moderate growth rate
with age, develops pink color, tan, or gray
Seen in mycotic keratitis.
Soft contact lenses
mortality in bone marrow recipients is 100%
High fever, disseminated skin leseions and fungemia.
Recovered in blood cultures
Appears yeast-like on initial recovery
abundant macroconidia with fewer microconidia are produced on hyphae.
Macroconidia are banana or canoe shaped and are formed singly or in small slusters together in mats termed sporodochia.
Macroconidia are typically multicelled
Rapid growing hyaline fungus
rose to mauve to purple to yellow
HIgh mortality, hospital outbreaks
Can be confused with Penicillium.
Phialides are generally longer and more obviously tapered
Flat, granular to velvety colonies in shaeds of tan, brownish gold or mauve.
Serious infections and difficult to treat
rarely cause infections, chronic fungal sinusitis
Conidiophores are erect, sometimes branched with metulae bearing one or several phialides on which oval conidia are produced in long, loose chains.
Green or blue colonies
pulmonary disease in immunocompromised
conidiophores are formed singularly or can be in clusters.
conidia are formed from annellides, increased length in conidia.
Truncate-based conidia tend to remain in chains
Grows moderately and forms colonies covered by tan to buff conidia.
Some species are dematiaceous.
emerging pathogen in immunocompromised
pulmonary and skin infections
yellow-green conidia formed on clusters of tapering phialides
Conidia may be clustered in baslls at the phialides tips.
colonies are intensely green and granular with an abundance of conidia
recovered from any source
Chronic fungal sinusitis, misdiagnosed
Short conidiophores bearing conidia in chains that lengthen in an acropetal fashion.
Multicelled conidia have angular cross-walls and taper towrd the distal end.
colonies grey to brown, to black
Rare but can be traced to contaminated dialysis lines
recovered from blood, tissues, abscesses.
worldwide, wet conditions
Hyaline hyphae giving rise to hyaline conidia
grow moderate to rapid
off white to pink, old becomes black
infrequent, laboratory contamination
Sinuses or traumatic inoculation
brown to olive to black hyphae and conidia.
Conidiophores are erect and may branch into several conidiogenous cells.
moderately growing olive, brown, or black
from leaves and grass
multicelld conidia on conidiophores
crescent-shaped conidia with three to five cells of unequal size and an enlarged central cell. easy to ID
dematiaceous colony that is cottony and dirty grey to black
Conidiophores bear dark, multicelled conidia on sympdial conidiophores. Conidia have angular cross-walls
rapidly growing dematiaceous fungi
brown to black colonies
Slow growing anthropomorphic dermatophytes
grey-patch tinea captitis of children
conidia are rarely produced
cottony white and generally form little or no pigment on reverse
Microconidia are spindle shaped with echinulate, thick walls. abundant
colonies are fluffy and white with the reverse being yellowon potato dextrose agar
Has fusiform, moderately thick-walled conidia have as many as six cells.
The distal end of the macroconidium might bear a think, filimentlous tail.
Abundant micro and macroconidia
powdery granular colonies
tan to buff
sterile hyphae in aging cultures
Brown or red on the reverse
What kind of specimens for the recovery of fungi are not acceptable
For which clinical specimens is the KOH direct mount technique for examination of fungal elements used?
The India ink stain is used as a presumptive test for the presence of which organism?
Cryptococcus neoformans in CSF
Cutaneous disease involving skin, hair, and nails usually indicates an infection with a
What is the first step to be performed in the identification of an unknown yeast isolate?
Germ tube test
An isolate produced a constriction that was interpreted as a positive germ tube, but Candidia albicans was ruled out when confirmatory tests were performed. Which fungi is it most likely?
Cormenal agar with Tween 80 is used to identify which characteristic of an unknown yeast isolate?
Hyphae, blastoconidia and arthroconidia, Chlamydospores
Blastoconidia are the beginning of which structures?
An isolate from CSF growing on cornmeal agar produces blastoconidia, but is negative for pseudohyphae, chlamydospores, and arthroconidia. Which tests should be performed next?
Birdseed agar and urease
Which of the following yeast enzymes is detected using birdseed agar?
Which of the yeasts is characteristically positive for germ tube production?
Arthroconidia production is used to differentiate which two yeast isolates?
Trichosporon cutaneum and Cryptococcus neoformans
The urease test, niger seed agar test, and the germ tube test are all used for the presumptive identification of
Which yeast produces only blastoconidia on cornmeal Tween 80 agar?
Ascospores are formed by which yeast isolate?
A germ tube-negative, pink yeast isolate was recovered from the respiratory secretions and urine of a patient with AIDS. Given the following results, what is the most likely identification?
Chlamydospore production is demonstrated by which Candida spp?
Carbohydrate assimilation tests are used for the identification of yeast isolates by inoculating media
containing yeast extract
Yeast recovered from the urine of a catheterized patient receiving chemotherapy gave the following results
Germ tube pos
No further testing
A blood agar plate inoculated with sputum from a patient with diabetes mellitus grew few bacterial flora and a predominance of yeast. Given the following results, what is the most likely ID of the yeast isolate?
Germ tube neg
Dimorphic molds are found in infected tissue in which form?
The mycelial form of which dimorphic mold produces thick-walled, regular, or barrel-shaped alternate arthroconidia?
The yeast form of which dimorphic fungus appears as oval or elongated cigar shapes?
The mycelial forma of Histoplasma capsulatum seen on agar resembles
The yeast form of which dimorphic mold shows a large parent yeast cell surrounded by smaller budding yeast cells?
Which group of molds can be ruled out when sepatate hyphae are observed in a culture?
Tinea versicolor is a skin infection caused by
Which of the following structures is invaded by the genus Trichophyton?
An organism cultured from the skin produces colonies displaying a cherry-red color on Sabouraud dextrose agar after 3-4 weeks and teardrop-shaped microcondidia along the sides of the hyphae. the most likely ID is
Which Micosporum species causes an epidemic form of tinea capitis in children?
Microscopic examination of a fungus cultured from a patient with athlete's foot shoed large, smooth-walled, club-shaped macroconidia appearing singly or in clusters of two to three from the tips of short conidiospores. The colonies did not produce microcondidia. What is the most likely ID?
Which Trichophyton species causes the favus type of tinea captis seen in the Scandinavian countries and in the Appalachian region of the US?
The Hair Baiting Test is used to differentiate which two species of Trichophyton that produce red colonies on Sabouraud agar plates?
T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum
A mold that produces colonies with a dark brown, green-black, or black appearance of both the surface and reverse side is classified as a
A rapidly growing hyaline mold began as a white colony but soon developed a black pepper effect on the agar surface. The older a colony produced a black matte, making it resemble a dematiaceous mold. What is the most likely ID?
What dematiaceous mold forms flask-shaped phialides each with a flask-chaped collarette?
Which Aspergillus species, recovered from sputum or bronchial mucus, is the most common cause of pulmonary apergillosis?
A hyaline mold recovered from a patient with AIDS produced rose-colored colonies with lavender centers on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Microscopic examination showed multiseptate macroconidia appearing as sickles or canoes. What is the most likely ID?
Material from a fungaus-ball infection produced colonies with a green surface on Sabouraud agar in 5 days at 30 degrees. Microscopic examination shoed culb-shaped vesicles with sporulation only from the top half of the vesicle. This hyaline mold is most probably which Aspergillus spp?
A rapidly growing non septate mold produced colonies with a gray surface resembling cotton candy that covered the entire plate. Microscopic examination revealed sporangiophores arising between, not opposite, the rhizoids and producing pear-shaped sporangia. What is the most likely ID
An India Ink test was performed on CSF from an HIV infected male patient. Many encapsulated yeast cells were seen in the centrifuged sample. Further testing revealed a positive urease test and growth of brown colonies on niger-seed agar. The diagnosis of meningitis was caused by which yeast?
A bone marrow sample obtained from an immunocompromised patient revealed small intracellular cells using a Wright's stain preparation. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates of a mold phase at 25 degrees and a yeast phase at 37 degrees designates the organism as dimorphic. The mold phase produced thick, spherical tuberculated macroconidia. What is the most likely ID?
A lung biopsy obtained from an immunocompromised patient showed many cup-shaped cysts (gray to black) in a foamy exudate (green background) using Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain. The organism cannot be cultured because it does not grow on routine culture media for molds. Tha patient was diagnosed with pneumonia that resisted antibiotic treatment. The most likely ID is?
Pneumocystis jirovecci (carinii)
Upon direct examination of a sputum specimen, several spherule were noted that contained endospores. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar showed aerial mycelial elements. The septate hyphae produced barrel-shaped arthroconidia. What is the most likely ID?
A bone marrow specimen was obtained from an immunocompromised patient who tested positive for HIV. The organism grew rapidly at 3 days showing a mold form at 25 degrees, displaying conidiophores with four to five terminal metulae with each having four to six phialides. The conidia at the end of the phialides were oval and in short chains. They appear as a fan or broom when vewing under 10X and 40X. At 37 degrees, the yeast form grew more slowly, showing conidia that formed hyphal elements breaking at the septa to produce oval arthroconidia. This thermo-dimorphic mold is most likely:
What is the specimen of choice for the initial diagnosis of Pneumocysits jirovecii (carinii) in an immunocompromised patient, such as someone with AIDS?
A transplant patient is suspected of having invasive Aspergillosis on the basis of clinical and radiological findings. Which specimen is best for the initial ID of aspergillosis by soluble antigen testing?
Serum or urine
What is the most common cause of mucormycosis infection in humans?
A thermally dimorphic fungus shows a filamentous mold form with tuberculate macroconidia at room temperature, and a yeast form above 35 degrees. Which organism best fits this description?
After a vacation to Southwestern US, a Midwesterner complained of flulike symptoms with fever, chills, nonproductive cough, and chest pain. Microscopic exam of sputum, cleared with KOH, revealed large, thick-walled spherules containing endospores. Upon culture, the mold phase showed septate hyphae and alternating barrel-shaped arthroconidia. Which organism is most likely the cause?
Fusion of 2 haploid nuclei; Spores-telemorph
Mitotic division of haploid nucleus and budding production of conidia- anamorph
Tube-like structures with thick parallel walls
Has cross wall
Rare cross walls
Mat of hyphae
Elongated budding yeast cells (blastoconidia) with contrictions between cells (buds)
Sexual, true sporulation, fusion of haploid nuclei
Spore sacs (asci)
Cleistothecium (round closed)
Perithecium (flask-shaped, Open)
Apothecium (saucer shaped, open)
Ribbon-like aseptate hyphae, sexual and asexual
Septate; sexual and asexual
Septate; Sexual; mushrooms; club fungi
Lactophenol cotton blue
Stains and kills organism. Use with culture media
capsule of Crytococcus neoformans
Primary growth agars
Sabouraud-dextrose agar- Glucose, peptone, pH 5.6
Mycosel- Similar to SAB but contains cycloheximide, BHI with 5% SRBCs, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Inhibits some Candida and Crytpotcoccus along with Aspergillus funigatus and Pseudallescheria boydii
Specialty growth media
Bird-seed agar- Cryptococcus neoformans (brown colonies)
Corn meal agar- Candida albicans (chlamydoconidia)
Rice infusion oxgall Tween 80 (RIOT)- Chlamydoconidia
25 to 30 degrees
Septate hyphae; micro and macroconidia
Causes of Tinea capitis
Endothrix (inside shaft)- Temporary hair loss
Ectothrix (outside shaft) permanent hair loss
Some dermatophytes fluoresce with UV like (Microsporum in hair)
Treatment of tinea
Miconazole, clotrimazole, griseofulvin
Macroconidia- Many, rough, spindle-shaped (except M. audouinii)
Tinea (mostly in children); Hair and skin; Hair fluoresces
Rare distorted macroconidia; Terminal chloamydoconidia
Epidemic tinea capitis
Hyphae usually sterile
10-21 days for growth
Reddish-brown color on reverse
Thick-walled macroconidia; knobby end
Causes dog and cat ringworm
Growth 4-5 days
Yellow color on reverse
Thin-walled macroconidia, rounded ends, but not knobby
Orange-brown color on reverse
Macroconidia- Few; Thin, smooth walls
Mostly in adults; hair, skin and nails; No fluorescing Hairs
Urease pos in 2-3 days
MIcroconidia- numerous, spiral and nodular bodies; white, cottony mycelium
Urease neg; Red reverse
Microconidia- tear shaped and dispersed along hyphae
Black dot ringworm; balloon forms; Yellow-red reverse
Microconidia- numerous, clavate varying in size (balloon and matchstix)
Macroconidia- 2-4 cells in clusters or singles, smooth walls, club shaped.
Skin and nails; especially feet, hands, and groin
Olive green or khaki
Slow growth, waxy colonies, deer antlers, and chlamydoconidia
Affects scalp and body
Wrinkled, yeast-like purple colony hyphae and chlamydoconidia in chains
Yeast; nopseudohyphae; brown colonies on bird seed agar
Mucoid colonies- capsule
Inhibited by cycloheximide
Found in pigeon and bird droppings
meningitis and septicemia in immunocompromised patients
Amphotericin B or Flucytosine for treatment
Germ tube pos
Chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar
Yeast or tissue phase at 36 degrees; mold phase at 30 degrees
Treatment: Amphotericin B
Small yeast forms in tissue
Mycelial form exhibits tuberculate macroconidia-diagnostic
found in bird and bat droppings
infects RED- bone marrow specimen of choice
Primary focus pulmonary
May be confused with Sepedonium
Large yeast cells with broad based buds and double contoured wall; mold phase produces lollipop forms
Primary focus pulmonary; skin lesions common
Confused with scedosporium apiospermum
Tissue form- large, round walled spherule containing endospores
Mold phase- thick walled, alternate staining arthroconidia (very infectious)
Endemic in desert southwest and semiarid regions
Primary focus pulmonary
Paracoccidioides brasiliesis (South America)
Yeast form pulmonary; can simulate TB
May have cutaneous or mucocutaneous lesions
Yeast: Multiple buds (Mariners wheel)
Mold: Similar to lollipop forms
Found in soil, plants, decaying matter
Traumatic inoculation through skin (rose thorns)
Phygenic and granulomatous inflammatory reaction
Yeast phase- Ovoid, cigar bodies
Mycelial phase- Delicate branching hyphae with ovoid conidia clustered at tip in rosette head or along side like a sleeve
Phialophora and Cladosporium- foot or leg
Scaly, wart-like lesions
Brown pigmented hyphae
Cladosporium carionii- conidia in branched chains
Phialophora verrucosa- conidia produced in a flask-like conidiophore or phialide
Acrotheca- Conidia formed along side of irregular, club shaped conidiophores; this genus exhibits all three types of sporulation
Germ tube test neg( but forms structure between tube and spore
Assimilates only glucose and trehalose
Small extracellular yeast
Small intracellular Yeast
Yeast with Capsule
Yeast with pseudohyphae
Large yeast with broad-based buds
Large yeast with multiple buds
Endospherules and endospores
Green or blue-green colonies; branching or Penicillus Head; Sterigmata Blunt
Delcate hyphae; Elliptical Conidia with appearance of Brain surface
Colonies lavender to purple; banana shaped macroconidia
Conidiophore ends in swelling (vesicle) which carries sterigmata and chains of conidia
term used to indicate infection of the skin of the groin
condition characterized by the production of sclerotic bodies
fungal infection caused by a dimorphic organism characterized by a tendency to travel along lymphatic vessels
superficial mycosis that causes brown to black lesions on the palms of the hands
cutaneous mycosis characterized by lesions on the soles of the feet
infection of the nails on the toes
granules that are actually colonies that are found in draining from lesions
synonymous with zygomycosis to many mycologists
yeast infection by the most commonly isolated pathogenic yeast
transmitted by inhalayion of the mold form. Causative agent is endemic in an area limited to the Lower Sonoran Life Zone
transmitted by implantation, caused by dematiaceous organisms. Site of infection may involve fat, muscle, or bone
general term used to describe infections caused by Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton
term used to describe an infection of the shaven area of a man's face
disease that is characterized by alternating arthroconidia as the infective stage
infection of the external ear
superficial infection of the hair in which the nodule appears similar to a nit
specific causative agent is an anaerobic gram positive rod
yeast like organism that causes tinea nigra produces this structure as a characteristic
caused by disarticulation of hypha
structure that encloses the columnella in a mature colony
cell that produces the conidiophore
reproductive cell of Absidia
filamentous fungal structure usually seen on KOH
cell produced in a perithecium
term used for the swollen area at the junction of the sporangiophore and columnella
describes the clavate cells that characterize dermatophytes
endospores are produced within this structure
structure found in dermatophytes resembling deer antlers
reproductive structure unique to syncephalastrum
antibiotic delivered by slow IV drip
class of antifunhal drugs characterized by imidazole drugs
used to treat a subcutaneous infection relatively common in North America
clotrimazole is the chemical name
diflucan is the trade name
antibiotic used to orally treat onychomycosis
yeast genus used in many food industries to ferment sugar to produce alcohol
dematiaceous fungal genus that we studied as a possible agent of keratomycosis
fungal genus recently linked to fungal meningitis
teleomorphic name for Pseudoalloescheria boydii
fungal pathogen common to the Indian subcontinent that produces polyps
yeast named partly for the characteristic pigment that is produced
yeast that is a mutant or subtype of the most commonly isolated pathogenic yeast
member of the dematiaceous genera that infects only skin and nails
genus which produces rhizoids beneath the sporangiophore
causative agent of tinea nigra
dematiaceous mould that appears hyaline as a young colony but darkens with age
hyaline mould that produces characteristic banana-shapes or canoe-shaped macroconidia
dematiaceous mould that usually produces four-celled macroconidia on sympodial condiophores
hyaline mould that is characterized by rough-walled conidia
previous genus name was cephalosporium
hyaline dimorphic mould that may produce sympodial conidia
dematiaceous mould that produces single cell conidia
infectious agent that is an alga that lacks chlorophyll
soil bacteria that is neither anaerobic nor acid fast
superficial infection most likely to occur on the hands
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