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a stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal


a condition in which we require something we lack


caused by both biological and psychological needs, the forces that motivate an organism to take action


in contrast to biological needs, psychological needs...

are not necessarily based on deprivation

the biological need for food gives rise to....

the hunger drive

instincts are also called...

fixed-action patterns

behavioral patterns genetically transmitted from generation to generation


William James believed that human behavior was motivated by....


tendency to maintain a state of equilibrium in the body, achieved through adjustments of the nervous system


The drive-reduction theory applies to...

many biological drives

Maslow pioneered the study of _____ psychology.


The need for self-actualization is part of the theory by....


the need to become what one believes he or she is capable of being


hunger drive can be satisfied by...

sensations of chewing and swallowing

people experience hunger as a result of...

pressure and anxiety, low blood sugar, and the activity of the hypothalamus

the start and stop eating centers are located in the...


people tend to eat more...

around others

Obesity effects about....

3 out of 10 American Adults

weighing more than 30% percent over your recommended body weight


healthy wright control programs involve...

diet and exercise

Particular genes contribute to obesity by...

not sending the person the biological signal to stop eating

the rate that people metabolize food is based on the amount of...

muscle and fat in their body

desires for stimulatoin

stimulus motives

an absence of stimulation

sensory deprivation

sensation seekers are people who...

are at their best when doing something adventerous

motivation to get ahead and tackle challenging situations and to meet high personal standards of success

achievement motivation

specific goals

performance goals

goals in learning for learning's sake

learning goals

motivators such as good grades, good income, or respect from others

extrinsic rewards

motivators such as learning goals and self-satisfaction

intrinsic rewards

parents of children with learning goals encourage their children to...

be persistent, enjoy school, and solve their own problems

seeking to think and behave in ways what they believe and how others expect them to behave, thoughts fit with their beliefs

cognitive consistancy

uncomfortable state that tends to upset people


leaves people feeling indifferent


desire to join with others and be a part of something larger than oneself


affiliation motivation prompts people to...

make friends and participate, keep families together, provides support for a pleasurable company

needs such as self esteem and achievement

psychological needs

states of feeling that influence our thoughts and actions


The James-Lang theory is criticized because...

it downplays the role of human cognition

PET scans show that different emotions....

involve different parts of the brain

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