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51 terms

Music History

Music History Test #3
STUDY
PLAY
Prima Prattica
Music in the master, words the servant
Secunda Prattica
Words are the master, music is the servant; text expression justifies breaking rules; characteristic of Baroque music.
Doctrine of Affections
Mood- Mood can affect the listener- Unity
Basso Continuo
a performing force that acts as the glue or the pulse of the entire ensemble; characteristic of Baroque music--(Anthony and Dr. Barte in the B minor Mass)
Figured Bass
symbols that show the position in which to play chords/notes—it is usually shown below the staff; characteristic of Baroque music
Monody
soloist + continuo accompaniment
Stile Concitato
agitated style; characterized by quick repeated chords; suggests battle-like effect
Florentine Camerata
The group in Florence (including Bardi, Peri, et. al.) that sought, after reading about the power of music in Ancient Greece, to recapture that in works that they created-leading to the creation of the new genre: OPERA
Giovanni Bardi
Count Bardi; host of the Florentine Camerata
Aria
song- reflection on the action
Recitative
speech-like; advance the story
Cantata
from "Cantare" (to sing) (vs. sonata); originally secular genre- soloist(s) usually no choir, few instruments, tells a story
Ostinato
ground bass/ostinato from passacaglia
Oratorio
1. Not staged
2. BIBLICAL- old testament
3. Narrator
4. More choral music
Performed in "oratories" not in churches
Ricercar
imitative, slow, motet-like
Canzona
sectional-imitative, lively
Toccata
multi-sectional, various texture
Geistliches Konzert
(Little Sacred Concerts) for singer (s) and continuo, a couple of other instruments
Thirty Years War
1618-1648 - 30 years war
-No money for elaborate music
-Becker-Psalter
-Geistliches Konzert (Little Sacred Concerts) for singer (s) and continuo, a couple of other instruments
-After the war, the Dresden court was able to hire musicians to again allow Schute to write Grand Sacred Concertos like those of Gabrieli
-Example: Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich?
-Vocal soloists, choirs, instruments
-Also wrote more extended sacred works ex. 3 "Passion" settings
Da capo Aria
ABA- became the dominant form for Arias
Recitativo secco VS. Recitativo accompagnato
-recitative accompangnato- uses the orchestra

-recitative secco- just continuo
Sonata da chiesa VS. Sonata da camera
Sonata da Chiesa- church sonata; 4 mvmts.; S-F-SF; more serious; more likely imitative

Sonata da Camera- chamber sonata; some movements called dance names; binary form
Trio sonata VS Solo Sonata
Trio sonata- 4 performers; 2 soloists + continuo

Solo Sonata- 3 performers; soloist + continuo
Orchestral VS Ripieno Concerto
concerti in which there is no soloist-a texture in which the whole orchestra plays throughout; also sometimes referred to as "String concertos."
Concerto Grosso
more than 1 soloist
Solo Concerto
concerto with soloist
Ripieno/Tutti, Concertino
All soloists featured
Ritornello
returning passages for the orchestra
Episode
different material for concerto
The Four Seasons
set of 4 violin concertos by Vivaldi; know the programmatic content--Winter: High Strings have silvery pizzicato notes; Summer evokes a Thunderstorm.
Ospedale della Pietà
girls orphanage in Venice where Vivaldi worked
Chorale Prelude
settings for organ of German Hymn
Chorale Partita
set of variations
Jean Baptiste Lully
Lully (1632-1687); Operas
Tradgédie Lyrique
the term used by the French for their operas; means "sung tragedy." (In a similar way in the 19th C, Wagner didn't call his works operas, but "Music dramas.")
French Overture
uses dance rhythms; dance
Notes inégales
notes written equally but "swung" in performance; subtle long short pairings
Traité de l'harmonie
1722- written by Rameau (1683-1764)- theorist; provides music theory terms that we still used today
Jean Phillipe Rameau
1683-1764- theorist who wrote Traite de l'harmonie
Henry Purcell
English composer (1659-1695); operas
Dido and Aeneas
opera by Purcell
How is a Baroque Basso Continuo part typically realized?
Generally, there will be a bass instrument (e.g. 'cello, viola da gamba, bassoon) playing just the notes in the part, PLUS a chordal instrument (e.g. harpsichord, organ, lute) that plays the chords implied by the figures.
Know the fundamental characteristics of Baroque music.
-Baroque Era 1600-1750
1.Tonality
2. Basso Continuo/Figured Bass
3. Secunda Prattica
4. Terraced Dynamics
5. Strong rhythm
6. Instrumental- rise in importance
7. Idiomatic- writing for instruments
8. Increase in importance of secular
9. Virtuosity
10. Doctrine of Affections- Mood- Mood can affect the listener- Unity
Compare typical Renaissance Madrigals with those from the early Baroque.
A renaissance madrigal will generally involve 4-6 vocalists-one to a part. A Baroque madrigal might involve three (singer, plus two on the continuo part), but might also involve more singers in some cases, and/or more instruments (e.g. a obligato violins)
How does Venetian Opera differ from earlier Florentine or Mantuan? Why?
Audience- is the PUBLIC
1. Popular style
2. Smaller orchestra
3. Spectacle

Why? - Because they had to support themselves through ticket sales, they had to appeal to the audience and keep costs down.
How are early oratorios different than operas?
Oratorios
1. Not staged
2. BIBLICAL- old testament
3. Narrator
4. More choral music
5. Performed in "oratories" not in churches

Opera- story set to music primarily through singing; include singing, acting, scenery/set/props, costumes, orchestra, liberetto, dancing, Opus (work)
What developments characterize Neapolitan Opera c. 1700?
Form: Da Capo Aria- ABA- became the dominant form for Arias
Recitative types:
-recitative accompangnato- uses the orchestra
-recitative socco- just continuo
How many performers play a typical trio sonata? What instruments do they play?
Trio sonata- 4 performers; 2 soloists + 2 continuo
Give an overview of the works of Vivaldi.
-500 concertos
-2/3 are solo concertos
-1/3- concerto grosso (more than 1 soloist); ripieno/string concertos (no soloists); tutti/ripieno concertino- All soloists featured
Discuss the distinctive features of French opera as represented by Lully.
1. French Overture
1st Section: stately, slowish, dotted rhythms, homophonic.
2nd Section: faster, dance like, triple-meter, polyphonic
Optional 3rd Section: Like the 1st

2. Dance
3. Dance rhythms
4. Ornamentation (trills, mordant, appogiatora)
5. Spectacle
List the French and Italian influences that are present in Purcell's Opera Dido and Aeneas.
French
-French Overture
-Dance rhythms
-Dance

Italian
-Recitative and Aria
-Aria: When I am Laid in Earth (ostinato)
-Ostinato- ground bass/ostinato from passacaglia
-Madrigalisms