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Music History Test #3

Prima Prattica

Music in the master, words the servant

Secunda Prattica

Words are the master, music is the servant; text expression justifies breaking rules; characteristic of Baroque music.

Doctrine of Affections

Mood- Mood can affect the listener- Unity

Basso Continuo

a performing force that acts as the glue or the pulse of the entire ensemble; characteristic of Baroque music--(Anthony and Dr. Barte in the B minor Mass)

Figured Bass

symbols that show the position in which to play chords/notes—it is usually shown below the staff; characteristic of Baroque music


soloist + continuo accompaniment

Stile Concitato

agitated style; characterized by quick repeated chords; suggests battle-like effect

Florentine Camerata

The group in Florence (including Bardi, Peri, et. al.) that sought, after reading about the power of music in Ancient Greece, to recapture that in works that they created-leading to the creation of the new genre: OPERA

Giovanni Bardi

Count Bardi; host of the Florentine Camerata


song- reflection on the action


speech-like; advance the story


from "Cantare" (to sing) (vs. sonata); originally secular genre- soloist(s) usually no choir, few instruments, tells a story


ground bass/ostinato from passacaglia


1. Not staged
2. BIBLICAL- old testament
3. Narrator
4. More choral music
Performed in "oratories" not in churches


imitative, slow, motet-like


sectional-imitative, lively


multi-sectional, various texture

Geistliches Konzert

(Little Sacred Concerts) for singer (s) and continuo, a couple of other instruments

Thirty Years War

1618-1648 - 30 years war
-No money for elaborate music
-Geistliches Konzert (Little Sacred Concerts) for singer (s) and continuo, a couple of other instruments
-After the war, the Dresden court was able to hire musicians to again allow Schute to write Grand Sacred Concertos like those of Gabrieli
-Example: Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich?
-Vocal soloists, choirs, instruments
-Also wrote more extended sacred works ex. 3 "Passion" settings

Da capo Aria

ABA- became the dominant form for Arias

Recitativo secco VS. Recitativo accompagnato

-recitative accompangnato- uses the orchestra

-recitative secco- just continuo

Sonata da chiesa VS. Sonata da camera

Sonata da Chiesa- church sonata; 4 mvmts.; S-F-SF; more serious; more likely imitative

Sonata da Camera- chamber sonata; some movements called dance names; binary form

Trio sonata VS Solo Sonata

Trio sonata- 4 performers; 2 soloists + continuo

Solo Sonata- 3 performers; soloist + continuo

Orchestral VS Ripieno Concerto

concerti in which there is no soloist-a texture in which the whole orchestra plays throughout; also sometimes referred to as "String concertos."

Concerto Grosso

more than 1 soloist

Solo Concerto

concerto with soloist

Ripieno/Tutti, Concertino

All soloists featured


returning passages for the orchestra


different material for concerto

The Four Seasons

set of 4 violin concertos by Vivaldi; know the programmatic content--Winter: High Strings have silvery pizzicato notes; Summer evokes a Thunderstorm.

Ospedale della Pietà

girls orphanage in Venice where Vivaldi worked

Chorale Prelude

settings for organ of German Hymn

Chorale Partita

set of variations

Jean Baptiste Lully

Lully (1632-1687); Operas

Tradgédie Lyrique

the term used by the French for their operas; means "sung tragedy." (In a similar way in the 19th C, Wagner didn't call his works operas, but "Music dramas.")

French Overture

uses dance rhythms; dance

Notes inégales

notes written equally but "swung" in performance; subtle long short pairings

Traité de l'harmonie

1722- written by Rameau (1683-1764)- theorist; provides music theory terms that we still used today

Jean Phillipe Rameau

1683-1764- theorist who wrote Traite de l'harmonie

Henry Purcell

English composer (1659-1695); operas

Dido and Aeneas

opera by Purcell

How is a Baroque Basso Continuo part typically realized?

Generally, there will be a bass instrument (e.g. 'cello, viola da gamba, bassoon) playing just the notes in the part, PLUS a chordal instrument (e.g. harpsichord, organ, lute) that plays the chords implied by the figures.

Know the fundamental characteristics of Baroque music.

-Baroque Era 1600-1750
2. Basso Continuo/Figured Bass
3. Secunda Prattica
4. Terraced Dynamics
5. Strong rhythm
6. Instrumental- rise in importance
7. Idiomatic- writing for instruments
8. Increase in importance of secular
9. Virtuosity
10. Doctrine of Affections- Mood- Mood can affect the listener- Unity

Compare typical Renaissance Madrigals with those from the early Baroque.

A renaissance madrigal will generally involve 4-6 vocalists-one to a part. A Baroque madrigal might involve three (singer, plus two on the continuo part), but might also involve more singers in some cases, and/or more instruments (e.g. a obligato violins)

How does Venetian Opera differ from earlier Florentine or Mantuan? Why?

Audience- is the PUBLIC
1. Popular style
2. Smaller orchestra
3. Spectacle

Why? - Because they had to support themselves through ticket sales, they had to appeal to the audience and keep costs down.

How are early oratorios different than operas?

1. Not staged
2. BIBLICAL- old testament
3. Narrator
4. More choral music
5. Performed in "oratories" not in churches

Opera- story set to music primarily through singing; include singing, acting, scenery/set/props, costumes, orchestra, liberetto, dancing, Opus (work)

What developments characterize Neapolitan Opera c. 1700?

Form: Da Capo Aria- ABA- became the dominant form for Arias
Recitative types:
-recitative accompangnato- uses the orchestra
-recitative socco- just continuo

How many performers play a typical trio sonata? What instruments do they play?

Trio sonata- 4 performers; 2 soloists + 2 continuo

Give an overview of the works of Vivaldi.

-500 concertos
-2/3 are solo concertos
-1/3- concerto grosso (more than 1 soloist); ripieno/string concertos (no soloists); tutti/ripieno concertino- All soloists featured

Discuss the distinctive features of French opera as represented by Lully.

1. French Overture
1st Section: stately, slowish, dotted rhythms, homophonic.
2nd Section: faster, dance like, triple-meter, polyphonic
Optional 3rd Section: Like the 1st

2. Dance
3. Dance rhythms
4. Ornamentation (trills, mordant, appogiatora)
5. Spectacle

List the French and Italian influences that are present in Purcell's Opera Dido and Aeneas.

-French Overture
-Dance rhythms

-Recitative and Aria
-Aria: When I am Laid in Earth (ostinato)
-Ostinato- ground bass/ostinato from passacaglia

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