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Genetics chapter 3 reproducing life and protect producing variation
Terms in this set (69)
Single celled organism with no nuclear membrane or organelles and with their genetic material of a single stand in a cytoplasm.
Multi celled organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing both the genetic material and specialized organelles.
A membrane Brown structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material.
The gel-like substance inside the cell membrane that surrounds the nucleus and in which the organelles are suspended.
Diploid cells that form the organisms, tissues, and the other parts of an organism's body.
Sexual reproductive cells, OVA and sperm, that has a haploid number of chromosomes in that can you knights with a gamete of the opposite type to form a new organism.
Refers to nuclear DNA, which is identical in the nucleus of each cell type.
Energy producing ATP organelles in eukaryotic cells semicolon they possess their own independent DNA.
an important cellular molecule, created by the mitochondria and carrying the energy necessary for cellular function
Adenosine triphosphate ATP
DNA, such as mitochondrial DNA, who inheritance can be traced from the mother to daughter or to son.
The predictable pairing of nitrogen bases in the structure of DNA and RNA, since the adenine and thymine always pair together and cytosine and guanine pair together.
Variations in the DNA sequence do to change every single nitrogen base.
Single nucleotide polymorphism snps
The process of copying nuclear DNA prior to the cell division so that each new daughter cell receives a complete complement of DNA.
the process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells.
The production of gametes through one DNA replication and two cell divisions, creating four haploid genetic cell's
the cell that results from a sperm fertilization of an ovum.
nucleotides that are present in the nucleus and are used during DNA replication and mRNA synthesis.
Refers to each set up a pair of chromosomes in the genome
All chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occurred in Paris and all somatic cells.
The characteristics of the chromosomes of an individual organism or a species, such as number, thighs, and type. Karyotype is the typical represented as a photograph of a person's chromosomes that have been arranged in a homologous Pairs and put in numerical order by size.
the pair of chromosomes that determine an organism's biological sex.
DNA is inheritance can be traced from father to son via the Y chromosome.
a cell that has a full completement a pair of chromosomes
a cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes semicolon the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell.
The process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrapped around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis.
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes, resulting from a crossover event.
A large set of hot blood types, such as the Y chromosome mitochondrial DNA, that may be used to define a population.
rearrangements of chromosomes to the insertion of genetic material from the chromosome to another.
refers to the failure of chromosomes to properly segregate during meiosis creating some gametes with abnormal number of chromosomes.
Refers to the condition in which only one of a specific pair of chromosomes is present in a cell's nucleus.
Refers to the condition in which an additional chromosome exist with the homologous pair
Mendel's Second Law, which asserts that inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits.
Law of Independent Assortment law of independent
Refers to the inheritance, as a unit, of individual genes close is located on the chromosomes semicolon an exception to the law of independent assortment.
organic molecules combined in a specific sequence by the ribosomes to form a protein.
Those amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body semicolon they must be supplied by the diet.
Essential amino acids
proteins that form an organism's physical attributes.
Structure of proteins
proteins involved in the expression of control genes
the first step of a protein synthesis, involving the creation of mRNA based on the DNA template.
The second step of protein synthesis, involving the transfer of amino acids by TRNA to the ribosomes, and which are then added to the protein chain.
a single stranded molecule involved in protein synthesis, containing a phosphate, ribosome sugar, and one of four nitrogen bases.
Ribonucleic acid RNA
one of four nitrogen bases that make up RNA semicolon pairs with adenine.
the molecules that are responsible for making a chemical copy of a gene needed for a specific protein, that is, or the transcription phase of protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA mRNA
The organelles attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, located in the cytoplasm of a cell they are the sites of protein synthesis.
a fundamental structural component of a ribosome.
Ribosomal RNA rrna
the molecules that are responsible for transporting amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA TRNA
sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by TRNA, they match up with the complementary mRNA codons in each designate a specific amino acid during protein synthesis.
sequences of three nitrogen bases in DNA, known as codons in mRNA.
the sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce specific amino acids in protein synthesis.
Chemical bond that joins amino acids into a protein chain.
also known as a protein, a chain of amino acids held together by multiple peptide bonds.
sequences of genes DNA that are coded to produce a specific protein and are transcribed and translated during protein synthesis.
sequence of genes DNA that are not coded to produce specific proteins and or excited before protein synthesis.
Genes coded to produce particular products, such as an enzyme or hormone, rather than for regulatory proteins.
also known as homo box chains, they are responsible for differentiating the specific segments of body, such as the head, a tail, and all them, during embryonic development
the location on a chromosome of a specific Gene
Syndrome that causes lengthening of Bones most controversial person to have it is Lincoln.
Refers to the presence of two or more alleles at the locus and where the frequency of the alleles is greater than 1% in the population.
Mendel's first law, in which asserts that two alleles of Any Given Gene are inherited, one from each parent semicolon during gamete production, only one of the two alleles will be present in each of the ova or sperm.
Law of segregation
Also called short tendon repeats Str. Refers to the sequence of repeated base pairs of DNA comma usually no more than 2 or 6. If repeated excessively, they are often associated with neurological disorders, such as Huntington's Gloria.
specific proteins, on the surface of cells, that stimulate the immune system's antibody production.
molecules that form a part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances semicolon attached to the foreign antigens.
refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles that is single Locus on homologous chromosomes are the same.
refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at the single locusts on homologous chromosomes are different.
refers to two different alleles that are equally dominant both are both are fully expressed in a heterozygous phenotype
Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes.
refers to the heritable traits but without alteration of the genome genome.
the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is due to genetic variation across individuals rather than variation in the environment conditions experienced by the individual. proportion can vary from one population to another, and that it provides a sense of their contribution to genetic influence for each population
One gene has many multiple biological effects
many genes contribute to a single effect
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