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Terms in this set (33)
The Sun's energy
126 trillion hp/sec reaches Earth. That's ½ of 1% of its total output.
short wavelength radiation, strikes Earth. Some is reflected back into space, most is absorbed by the atmosphere and surface, where it's converted into long wavelength heat
The atmosphere lets light in rapidly but holds heat for a long time. Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, CFCs.
burning fossil fuels
aerosols and refrigerants (Freon)
long-term weather. A function of temperature and precipitation: hot-dry, hot-wet, cold-dry, cold-wet.
Factors which influence climate
2. Insolation (incoming solar radiation)
3. atmospheric motion
4. hydrospheric motion
5. Earth's Rotation
6. Coriolis force
7. Axial tilt
8. The unequal distribution of land
10. Proximity to oceans
11. Mountain Ranges
Because of Earth's curvature, solar radiation is more effective at warming surface in Tropics than higher latitudes.
causes objects in free motion over the rotating surface of a sphere to deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Not a true force (like gravity). Only visible from an earthly frame of reference, not from space.
Affect Coriolis has on pressure
Causes an area of high pressure at 30 degrees north and south latitude, and an area of low pressure at 60 degrees north and south latitude
Where is the Coriolis Force greatest/weakest?
Greatest at poles, weakest at equator.
(incoming solar radiation) Earth has an insolation surplus at the equator, a deficit at the poles, so it must transfer heat. Causes an area of low pressure at the equator, the ITCZ, and areas of high pressure at the poles.
80%. the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.
20%. in the form of currents that move the warm waters in the tropics toward the poles, and colder water from the polar regions toward the tropics
The Coriolis Effect is caused by this. west to east, causing both the wind and ocean currents to move from east to west. winds/currents in the northern hemisphere go clockwise and counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
low pressure system
area with lower atmospheric pressure than its surrounding areas; this makes air from surrounding areas to flow into the low, the end result of which is probably cloudiness and precipitation
high pressure system
whirling mass of cool, dry air that generally brings fair weather, light winds, sunny skies.
23-1/2 degrees. Causes 5-10 degree bands of seasonally varying precipitation. responsible for seasonal variation in temperature and day length. Causes the ITCZ.
The unequal distribution of land
Planet: 28% land, 72% ocean. Northern hemisphere: 39% land, southern hemisphere 19% land. Affects the seasonal position of the ITCZ
Proximity to oceans
The closer to=less extremes between summer high and winter low temperatures: Maritime.
The farther away=the drier: Continental
Land heats and cools faster than water, which is why inland weather is hotter/colder during the summer/winter (lake effect)
Upwind from=wetter, good stream flow. Downwind from=drier (rain shadow)
Orographic Effect (definition)
The precipitation that occurs when moist air rises up the side of a mountain. As the air rises, it cools down and releases most of its moisture as rain or snow.
A drier area on the leeward side of a mountain range, as air descends and warms, it increases its ability to hold moisture.
Intertropical Convergence zone. ridge of low pressure air that roughly parallels the equator.
Why does the ITCZ seek land in the summer?
Because land masses are warmer than oceans in summer and air rises more readily from them.
ITCZ and point of highest insolation (equator)
Not usually the same because there is a 23.5 degree axial tilt, so the area of greatest insolation is not always equator (usually Tropic of Capricorn/Cancer)
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