AP Government Unit 3 Flashcards
Terms in this set (51)
Factors affecting voting decisions: Income
A higher income will make voting more likely while a lower income will make voting less likely.
Factors affecting voting decisions: occupation
A person is more or less likely to vote depending on their occupation. Managerial or professional workers are more likely to vote, and the unemployed are the least likely group to vote.
Factors affecting voting decisions: education
People with more education are more likely to vote, people with less education are less likely to vote. Historically, as the level of voters' education increases, the percentage voting Republican increases-- however, the lines have been more blurred as of the recent decade.
Factors affecting voting decisions: gender
Women vote at a higher turnout rate and tend to favor Democrats. Gender impacts participation and since 1992 women vote more often than men.Women generally favor the Democrats, while men generally favor the Republicans. Known as the gender gap, this phenomenon first appeared in the 1980s.
Factors affecting voting decisions: age
Older people are more likely to vote than younger people. Historically, young voters are more likely support Democratic candidates while older are more likely to support Republican candidates.
Factors affecting voting decisions: Religion
Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote than Protestants. Historically, a majority of Protestants have supported Republican candidates, while a majority of Jewish and Catholic voters have supported Democratic candidates.
Factors affecting voting decisions: ethnicity
Whites tend to have higher turnout rates than do African Americans, Hispanics, and other minority groups. When the effects of income and education are eliminated, black citizens vote at a higher rate than do white citizens. African Americans tend to be Democrat.
Factors affecting voting decisions: geography
Middle America tends to favor Republican, West and East Coast tends to favor Democrats, and urban holds strong Democratic supporters (vice versa for Republicans in rural). Geographic
Factors affecting voting decisions: family
Shape political views the heaviest--whether it be reverse or similar views. The more politically active the family, the more likely one will share the views (political socialization).
Factors affecting voting decisions: party affiliation
People tend to vote for the candidate that is in the party they are registered too, although at times they will not depending on how good the candidate from the other party is.
Campaign Finance Attempts by Congress
Federal Election Commission Act (1974) set the starting basis for the current federal campaign finance law
A political process of redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states, as well as population shifts within the state.
Gerrymandering is the redrawing of congressional districts to produce a particular electoral outcome.
A process where seats are allotted to each state after the US census
the recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
McGovern- Fraser commission- Party elites vs. rank and file voters
A commission made in response to the tumultuous 1968 democratic national convention promoting more representation of women and minorities in the delegate selection process.
Super delegates (DLC)
A unpledged or unelected delegate who is free to support any candidate in the presidential nomination in the party's national convention.
Candidate-centered campaigns vs. party-centered campaigns
The difference between candidate-centered campaigns and party-centered campaigns is that for candidate-centered campaign, individual candidates have most of the initiative and influence in election campaigns and other political processes, but for the party-centered campaigns, political parties have most of the initiative and influence in election campaigns and other political processes
Attempts at voter repression (Voter ID laws) or attempts at ending voter corruption
a strategy used to regulate the outcomes of an election by prevent people from exercising their right to vote.
Factors affecting voting behavior: ages
The majority of the people who age between 18 to 29 years of age tend to vote at a much lower rate than people who are older, as well as lean towards the liberal and democratic spectrum compared to those older of age who are found to be more conservative.
Factors affecting voting behavior: socioeconomic status
People who are found to have a higher socioeconomic status, in other words, have higher educational, occupational, and financial income and capabilities, vote and participate in politics in much larger numbers compared to people who have lower socioeconomic status. In addition, Republicans tend to advocate for the beliefs of people in higher socioeconomic status, while Democrats advocate for the people of lower socioeconomic status.
Factors affecting voting behavior: residence
Urban cities tend to vote more towards the Democrats while the rural areas tend to vote more towards Republicans.
Factors affecting voting behavior: ethnicity
The majority of white Americans vote more towards Republicans, while African Americans and Latinos who represent the largest minority groups in the US, tend to vote more towards Democrats, even though some Latinos follow conservative ideals and lean towards Republicans. Also, white Americans vote in much higher numbers than most minority groups.
Factors affecting voting behavior: education
The higher the education received, the more likely the people are to vote more towards the Democrats, while in comparison, people with lower educations, or some with only a high school diploma, tend to lean more towards Republicans.
Geographic differences concerning party loyalty
The suburbs and rural areas have a stronger loyalty towards the Republican party, while the urban cities have stronger loyalty towards the Democratic party. In additions, states in the West lean towards Democrats while states in the south lean towards Republicans.
Conventional/ Non-conventional participation
Conventional participation is usually associated with common ways to directly participate in the government such as through voting, donating money to campaigns, and running for office, while Non-conventional participation tends to be enforcing a change and challenging established laws and policies, which most people view as negative action, such as protests, boycotts, and sit-ins.
Federal expansion of suffrage (amendments 15, 19, 26)
The Federal government is able to expand suffrage, in other words expand the right to vote, through the 15th amendment which allows all races to vote and prohibits restrictions against voting for all races, the 19th amendment which allows both men and women to vote and prohibits restrictions against voting for all genders, and the 26th amendment which lowers the voting age from 21 to 18 years old.
Causes of low voter turnout (Europe v. US)
-Wealth and literacy (high rates of minority) (institutional barriers)
-Demographics (older people vote more than younger). Ex. Europe has higher average age so there are more votes
-Two step voting process (register and then vote) takes longer unlike other nations
Presidential nominating process
(1) Nomination (2) Campaigns (3) Competing for Delegates (4) Caucus Road: nominee tries to gain votes of the delegates at the party's convention through caucuses/ primaries (shared concerns for legislation)> (5) Primary Road: go through party elections (6) Campaigns/ Media Attention (7) General elections (8) Electoral college
a meeting of respective party members in a local community for the purpose of nominating candidates for office or for electing delegates to county or state party conventions (Important: Iown and New Hampshire> most influential)
an election prior to the general election in which votes select the candidates that will run on each party's ticket (a presidential primary before the presidential election)
-Open: a primary election in which any voter can cast a ballot in any party's primary
-Closed: a primary election limited to registered party members only. Prevent members from other parties from crossing over to influence the ticket.
-Blanket: primary election that permits all voters, regardless of party affiliation, to vote on candidates. You can thus vote in both Democratic and Republican primaries
Presidential primary process- impact on party strength
purpose of presidential primary is NOT to nominate a candidate, BUT to select delegates to the party's national convention that support a particular contender in the race. In the past, most presidential primaries were winner take all elections in which the candidate with the most votes won all the delegates. The Democratic Party has now replaced winner take-all primaries with a proportional representation system that awards delegates based on the percentage of votes a candidate receives. The Republican Party currently uses both winner-take-all and proportional representation elections. One party can influence states for their votes and win> reduces prospect of third party candidates
-Open convention (heated debates over party's choices) and Closed convention (stage managed> less media)
-Changes: In the past, party conventions selected their presidential and vice pres. Candidates afters days of tense and often dramatic bargaining. As a result of victories in the primaries and caucuses, the leading contender now almost always has the nomination locked up before the convention begins
-Formally name the party's presidential and vice pres. Candidates
-Adopt a party platform
-Attempt to unify the party and generate positive publicity and momentum
Group of people seeking public offices to control public policy. There are 3 headed political giants or faces
-Party in government: Party's elected representatives in congress and presidency
-Party in electorate: voters that identify themselves as voter of a party, no formal membership needed, and the largest component of parties
-Party in organization: political party that keeps the party running between elections. Hosts national convention and committee and has a national chairperson.
Strong consensus on core values
American commits to group with core political values. Americans identify themselves moderates with both liberals and conservative views.
Single Member Districts (Electoral System)
election based on "Winner takes all" concept in which 1 voter is chosen in pluralistic (most votes) election while the loser gets nothing. This discourage minority groups from doing expensive campaign due to low supporters, resulting in 2 major parties.
2 system parties: reasons for their weakness
Creates social polarization between two parties with specific platform/beliefs. Americans are often in the middle between red and blue.
Majority voices are heard, but not minority
refers to people and politician disengaging in party (causing party identity to shrink) without creating a new party to replace it.
refers to the displacement of domination of majority party by minority party (Ex: New Deal Coalition)
Impact of Third parties
formed to address a single controversial issues with a strong ideology/stance
Against African American integration into school and Civil Rights, and adopted by an ongoing political party (American Independent Party). After his candidacy, the ballot access law got stricter for third parties to enter election.
Had to collect petitions in order to appear on ballot. His candidacy in 2000 affect the election by gaining more votes than AL Gore which likely caused him to lose.
Candidacy force President Clinton to focus more on budget deficit, and platform are adopted by P. Buchanan on the 2000 election.
contributions to political parties for party-building activities, such as voter registration campaigns and voting drivers. These funds doesn't need to be reported to the Federal Election Commission.
political donations given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are regulated by law through the Federal Election Commission.
(Federal Election Campaign Act) limits on contributions to federal candidates and political parties, a system for disclosure and voluntary public financing for presidential candidates.
(Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act) banned soft money contributions by political committee and prohibited corporations and unions from advocating for or against a candidate.
Buckley vs. Valeo
where the Supreme Court supported a federal law that set limits on campaign contributions. However, it still ruled that the usage of money to influence elections is a form of free speech, which means that it's constitutionally protected. Therefore, this case strike down some portions of FECA.
a case where the Supreme Court clarified that political spending is a form of free speech under the First Amendment. Therefore, the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting corporations or unions from spending money during elections to denounce or support an individual candidates.
represented by the number of registered voters who votes in elections.
Midterm vs. Presidential
Midterm elections is an election where congress, some legislatures and governors are elected. This election, however, has a lower voter turnout since the number of who vote is less than the voting age population, which means youth voters are usually low. Unlike the Presidential Election, it usually has a higher voter turnout due to its greater media coverage. Therefore, people are more likely to have an increased interest in this election, which further elevates the importance of national and presidential campaign.