Biology Module 4 (Study Guide Questions)
Wile, Exploring Creation with Biology 2nd edition
Terms in this set (21)
Which of the following characteristics or structures exist for the vast majority of fungi? Which are present in only a few species?
-Caps and Stalks
Common to the majority of fungi: extracellular digestion, chitin, mycelia, hyphae, cells, rhizoid hyphae
Present in only some: stolons, caps and stalks, sporangiophores, haustoria, motile spores, septate hyphae
Some biologists say that a mushroom is much like an iceberg, because only about 10% of an iceberg is visible from the surface of the ocean. What do they mean?
Typically, we see only the fruiting body of a mushroom. Like an iceberg, that visible part is only a small fraction of the total mushroom, because the mycelium is the largest component of a mushroom.
What is the difference between septate and nonseptate hyphae?
Septate hyphae have cell walls to separate the cells while non-septate hyphae do not.
What is the function of the following specialized hyphae?
Rhizoid hyphae- support the fungus and digests the food
Stolon- asexually reproduces
Sporophore- releases spores for reproduction
Haustorium- invades the cells of a living host to absorb food directly from the cytoplasm
Which of the following are aerial hyphae?
Stolons and sporophores are aerials.
What is the difference between a sporangiophore and a conidiophore?
A sporangiophore produces its spores in an enclosure; a conidiophore does not.
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom Fungi: Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Chytridiomycota, Deuteromycota, and Myxomycota
Basidiomycota- Form sexual spores on club-like basidia
Ascomycota- Form sexual spores in sac-like asci
Zygomycota- Form sexual spores where hyphae fuse
Chytridiomycota- Form spores with flagella
Deuteromycota- Fungi with no known method of sexual reproduction
Myxomycota- Fungi that look like protozoa for much of their lives
Describe each of the stages (in chronological order) associated with the life cycle of a mushroom, starting with the formation of a mycelium.
A mushroom begins life as a small mycelium that grows from spores which have come from another mushroom. As the mycelium begins .to grow, it might encounter a compatible mycelium. As the two mycelium intertwine, their hyphae will sexually reproduce. Eventually, the newly-produced hyphae will form a complex web and enclose themselves in a membrane. When the hyphae are formed in the membrane, we say that the mushroom has reached the button stage of its existence. At that point, the hyphae begin filling with water quickly, and eventually the stipe and cap (the fruiting body) of the mushroom break through the membrane. The fruiting body of the mushroom releases its spores, which will grow into new mycelia if they land in suitable habitats.
What is the main difference between shelf fungi, puffballs, and mushrooms?
Mushrooms form spores on basidia that exist in the gills of the cap, puffballs produce spores on basidia enclosed in a membrane, and shelf fungi produce spores on basidia in pores on the fruiting body.
What is an alternate host? List a type of fungus that uses one.
An alternate host is used by a parasitic fungus at some stage in its life. It is not the host that the fungus spends most of its life on; rusts use alternate hosts.
What type of fungus is best known for fermentation? To which phylum does it belong?
Yeast are best known for fermentation. They belong to phylum Ascomycota.
How is budding different from the asexual reproduction in bacteria?
In budding, the offspring stays attached to the parent until it has grown. In bacterial asexual reproduction, the offspring grows on its own.
Name at least two pathogenic fungi and the maladies that they cause.
1) rusts - crop damage
2) smuts - crop damage
3)ergot of rye - death
4) Cryphonectria parasitica - chestnut blight
5) Ophiostoma ulmi - Ditch elm disease
6) Synchytrium endobioticum - potato wart
Describe the three ways a bread mold can reproduce. In each case, specify whether the reproduction is sexual or asexual.
Bread mold can asexually reproduce when a stolon elongates and eventually starts another mycelium. It can also asexually reproduce when an aerial hypha forms a sporophore (typically a sporangiophore). Sexually, bread molds reproduce when two mycelia form a zygospore.
What puts a fungus into phylum Deuteromycota?
If we do not know what its sexual mode of spore formation is, we put it in phylum Deuteromycota.
What can happen when an antibiotic is used too much?
If an antibiotic is used too much, resistant strains of the pathogen it is supposed to destroy can be formed.
Name the genus of the fungus that produces penicillin.
Penicillin is extracted from a fungus in the genus Penicillium
When a slime mold is a plasmodium, it resembles organisms from what kingdom?
In its feeding stage, a slime mold is a plasmodium. During that time, it resembles organisms from kingdom Protista
What is the easiest way to get rid of slime molds?
Keep the habitat dry, and all slime molds will die.
What are the two major forms of mutualism in which fungi participate? Describe each relation ship and job of each participant in that relationship.
Fungi participate in mutualism by forming lichens and mycorrhizae. A lichen is a mutualistic relation ship between a fungus and an alga. The alga produces food for both creatures via photosynthesis, and the fungus supports and protects the alga. Mycorrihizae are mutualistic relationships between a fungus' mycelium and a plant's root system. The mycelium takes nutrients from the root while it collects minerals from the soil and gives them to the root.
What is a soredium?
A soredium is the specialized spore produced by most lichens. It contains spores for both the fungus and the alga.