-Imaging studies: allow direct visualization via radiographs, endoscopic examination, ultrasound, CT or MRI scans; useful in determining presence, size, and location of tumors.
-Biopsy and cytology studies: cells can be removed and examined to determine the presence and stage of neoplasms. In most cases, definitive diagnosis can only be made with microscope exam.
-Tumor markers: substances that may be detected in cells or body fluids and can provide clues to the presence, extent, and treatment response of certain neoplasms; can be comprised of hormones, enzymes, and immunoglobulins and may be produced by the tumor itself or unaffected cells in the body in response to the presence of a malignant or benign tumor. Many are expressed as protein antigens.
-Others: decreased Hbg levels may indicate anemia; WBCs, platelets, and RBCs levels may also be increased, particularly after chemotherapy.