Camera Movement

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Camera Movement
Involves physical movement of the camera from one location to another
Camera Rotation
Keeps the location of the camera the same but shifts the direction in which the camera is pointed
Zooming
Involves the adjustment of the camera's focal length so that more or less visual information is included in the film image
Pan
Side-to-side rotation of the camera, often used to follow the movement of figures and keep them within the frame
Tilt
Top-down rotation of the camera, often used to view an object that extends above or below the frame
Tracking
Movement of the camera in any direction, often used to follow the movement of figures and retain their positions and proportions within the frame
Crane
Movement of the camera above ground level, often involving a vertical rise or drop, used to reveal elements at different heights. Variations of this shot position the camera on an airplane or helicopter.
Shaking
Use of a handheld camera to express a psychological state or to generate a documentary-like aesthetic, as opposed to usual placement of a camera on a tripod to prevent shaking
Zooming
Adjustment of the camera's focal length.
Zoom In
A filmmaker who wants to emphasize a portion of the image can do this, which increases that portion's relative size within the frame and signals to the viewer that whatever it contains is of significance.
Zoom Out
A filmmaker who wants to expose the environment around a figure or action can do this, revealing the larger context.
Rack Focus
Adjustment of the focus within a shot in order to change the portion of the image that is in sharp focus. This guides the spectator's attention from one area of the screen to another. It is possible because in most shots, only certain portions of the image are in sharp focus.
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