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35 terms

Honors Bio Test

Cellular Respiration, Fermentation, & Photosynthesis
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Cellular Respiration
process by which cells use the energy stored in food molecules to make ATP in the presence of oxygen
Metabolic Reactions
all the chemical reactions in the body
Anabolic
reactions that build up complex molecules
Catabolic
reactions that break down to simple molecules
Metabolic conditions
conditions in which reactions take place
Aerobic
with oxygen present
Anaerobic
without oxygen present
ATP
cellular/chemical energy
Oxidized
when a molecule loses an electron
Reduced
when a molecule gains an electron
Glycolysis
chemical reactions that break sugar into two Pyruvate molecules
Gateway Reaction
reaction that turns Pyruvate into Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle
third step of cellular respiration
Oxidative Phosphorylation
process by which ETC and oxidative phosphorylation are coupled by a proton motive force
Electron Transport Chain
uses the energy in the high energy electrons to pump protons
Chemiosmosis
when ATP synthase uses the proton motive force to phosphorylate ADP, forming ATP
Fermentation
producing ATP without oxygen
Light Dependent Reaction
reactions that convert light energy to chemical energy
Light Independent Reaction
reactions that convert carbon dioxide to sugar
chlorophyll
green pigment located within the chloroplasts
Mesophyll Cells
leaf cells, contain most chloroplasts
Stomata
pore in the leaf through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves
Carbon Fixation
using carbon dioxide to make organic compounds
Photosystem
light gathering complex consisting of several hundred chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid molecules
Reaction Center
several hundred chlorophyll a molecules at the center of a photosystem, where first light driven chemical reactions occur
NADH
carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to make energy
NADPH
carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to build macromolecules
Pigments
substances that absorb light
Chlorophyll a
participates directly in light reactions
Chlorophyll b
captures energy and transfers it to chlorophyll a
Carotenoids
yellow and orange pigments that transfer light to chlorophyll a
Rubisco
enzyme that catalyzes the Calvin cycle, most common enzyme in the world
C3
plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 3 carbon compound (PGA)
C4
plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 4 carbon compound (malate)
CAM
plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation are 3 & 4 carbon molecules. This mode of carbon fixation is called CAM after the plant family Crassulaceae, the plant in which the process was first discovered