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Cellular Respiration, Fermentation, & Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration

process by which cells use the energy stored in food molecules to make ATP in the presence of oxygen

Metabolic Reactions

all the chemical reactions in the body


reactions that build up complex molecules


reactions that break down to simple molecules

Metabolic conditions

conditions in which reactions take place


with oxygen present


without oxygen present


cellular/chemical energy


when a molecule loses an electron


when a molecule gains an electron


chemical reactions that break sugar into two Pyruvate molecules

Gateway Reaction

reaction that turns Pyruvate into Acetyl CoA

Krebs Cycle

third step of cellular respiration

Oxidative Phosphorylation

process by which ETC and oxidative phosphorylation are coupled by a proton motive force

Electron Transport Chain

uses the energy in the high energy electrons to pump protons


when ATP synthase uses the proton motive force to phosphorylate ADP, forming ATP


producing ATP without oxygen

Light Dependent Reaction

reactions that convert light energy to chemical energy

Light Independent Reaction

reactions that convert carbon dioxide to sugar


green pigment located within the chloroplasts

Mesophyll Cells

leaf cells, contain most chloroplasts


pore in the leaf through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves

Carbon Fixation

using carbon dioxide to make organic compounds


light gathering complex consisting of several hundred chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid molecules

Reaction Center

several hundred chlorophyll a molecules at the center of a photosystem, where first light driven chemical reactions occur


carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to make energy


carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to build macromolecules


substances that absorb light

Chlorophyll a

participates directly in light reactions

Chlorophyll b

captures energy and transfers it to chlorophyll a


yellow and orange pigments that transfer light to chlorophyll a


enzyme that catalyzes the Calvin cycle, most common enzyme in the world


plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 3 carbon compound (PGA)


plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 4 carbon compound (malate)


plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation are 3 & 4 carbon molecules. This mode of carbon fixation is called CAM after the plant family Crassulaceae, the plant in which the process was first discovered

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