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The Roaring 20s, the Great Depression, and the New Deal
Terms in this set (47)
What is a general strike?
a union strikes and other unions strike in support of the original union's goals
What city experienced a general strike of 5 days in 1919?
What was the Red Scare?
a period of paranoia following the first World War that the U.S. was infested with dangerous radicals who were on the brink of overthrowing the U.S. government and changing America's way of life (there would a second Red Scare in the 50s)
What caused the Red Scare?
the success of the Bolshevik (communist) Revolution in Russia led to the belief that it could happen here
What were the Palmer Raids?
a series of raids aimed at immigrant radicals ordered by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer following the discovery (and some explosions) of mail bombs sent to important government officials and businessmen (including Palmer himself)
What were the criticisms of the Palmer Raids?
the raids violated civil liberties: the right to be free from illegal searches and seizures, no punishment without due process of law, and no cruel or unusual punishments
What is nativism?
the idea that the established culture must be maintained either through ensuring assimilation of newcomers or through strict limitations on immigration
What does nativism have to do with the 20s?
nativist theories were enacted into policies severely limiting immigration
What was the quota system enacted in the 20s?
the number of new immigrants from a given country allowed to immigrate to the U.S. was a percentage of the number from that country already in the U.S. (if there were very few or none from a given country immigration was effectively barred)
What was the act called that set up the quota system?
The National Origins Act
How was the Ku Klux Klan of the 20s different than Klan of the post-Civil War era?
membership extended outside the South and immigrants and non-Protestants (Catholics and Jews) were subject to Klan persecution and hostility
What event was associated with causing a decline in Klan membership in the 20s?
the arrest and conviction of D.C. Stephenson, a prominent Klan leader, on rape and murder charges
What was Warren G.Harding's campaign slogan for president?
a return to normalcy
For what negative aspect was the Harding administration particularly noted?
corruption and scandal (although Harding himself was generally regarded as an honest man)
What was the Teapot Dome Scandal?
Harding's Interior Secretary Albert Fall was found to have accepted bribes in exchange for leasing naval oil reserves to private oil companies
What was Harding's fiscal policy?
drastic reductions on income tax rates especially on the highest income earners
Who developed Harding's fiscal policy?
Harding's Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon
What was the Fordney-McCumber tariff?
a protective tariff passed during the Harding Administration that raised tariffs rates and caused many European nations to raise their tariffs in retaliation
Who said the business of America is business?
How did Calvin Coolidge feel about the plight of farmers?
there was nothing that could or should be done to alleviate the economic struggles of farmers
With what economic philosophy was Calvin Coolidge most associated?
How was the stock market crash related to bank failures?
banks had lent money to stockbrokers who had lent money to investors who now not could not pay back their loans
Who was president when the Great Depression started?
What term refers to all bank depositors going to the bank on the same day to take their deposits out?
a run on the banks
Describe the downward spiral of unemployment.
when workers lose their jobs, they purchase less causing a reduction in sales for a variety of items; the producers of those items then need fewer workers and lay off or fire some of their workers causing and the cycle continues
What caused the Dust Bowl?
farmers had plowed up the grass that had held the soil in place during droughts; when drought came the soil blew away
How has Hoover's reaction to the Great Depression been described?
his commitment to laissez faire principles prevented him from taking effective action to bring the U.S. out of the Depression
What was Roosevelt's agenda called for responding to the Great Depression?
the New Deal
What were FDR's three Rs?
relief, recovery, reform
What did each of the Rs have has a goal?
relief: help those who were suffering right away
recovery: get the economy going
reform: make sure that programs were in place to ensure that another economic disaster would not happen
What was the effect on the national government of the implementation of the New Deal?
the government grew in its size and responsibilites
What is deficit spending?
when the government spends more than it takes in in revenue
Why did FDR promote deficit spending?
to stimulate economic growth
What did the national government do to provide immediate employment during the New Deal years?
provided jobs on public works projects
What are public works projects?
projects of general benefit to the public examples: road, hydroelectric dam, library, and public park construction
What did the phrase alphabet soup programs refer to?
the many programs FDR and the Congress created that were known by their acronyms, e.g.: CCC, AAA, WPA
What was the 2nd Bill or Rights?
a set of statements from FDR about what the U.S.'s responsibilities to its citizens were
How did FDR respond to the Dust Bowl?
the U.S. Forestry Service in conjunction with the CCC, Works Progress Administration, and local farmers planted 220 million trees
What were the facts of the case in Wickard v. Filburn?
Roscoe Filburn was growing more wheat than he was allowed under the Agricultural Adjustment Act although he was only using it for personal consumption
What was the constitutional question in the Wickard v. Filburn case?
Did Filburn's wheat production impact interstate commerce and thus give Congress the right to regulate it under the interstate commerce clause?
What was the decision and reasoning in the Wickard v. Filburn case?
Yes Filburn's production affected interstate commerce so Congress had the right to regulate it. (Filburn lost)
What was the purpose of the Good Neighbor Policy?
to establish better political relations with Central and South America
What were the results of the Good Neighbor Policy?
the removal of the Platt Amendment from the Cuban constitution, the removal of U.S. Marines from Haiti
Why was there a 2nd New Deal?
economic recovery stalled and FDR initiated a second set of programs to improve the economy
What was the difference in theme between the 1st and 2nd Bill of Rights?
the 1st emphasized actions the government could not do to its citizens; the 2nd emphasized what the government must do for its citizens
What was the Court packing scheme?
FDR attempted to expand the number of Supreme Court Justices so that he could appoint Justices that would not declare his New Deal programs unconstitutional
Why did Congress reject Roosevelt's effort to expand the number of Supreme Court Justices?
they felt it gave too much power to the president and would upset the balance of power between the branches of the national governmnet
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