Rec Tech Pt 2
Terms in this set (52)
inventor of the 1st microphone and when? intended for what?
Emile Berliner, intended for telephones
acoustic device that converts acoustical energy into electrical energy (transducers)
internal structure that converts energy and affects how a mic sounds
what are carbon mics used for and why
used for telephones, too noisy for recording
who designed the first capacitance microphone and when
E.C. Wente in 1916 from Bell Labs
How does a capacitance microphone work
-pre-amp built into mic
-2 thin plates (one movable one fixed) w charge applied
-acoustic pressure changes capacity once w output voltage proportional to that pressure.
when was the moving coil microphone designed
1928 - E.C. Wente (Bell Labs)
rugged and reliable- lesser fidelity
how does a moving coil microphone work
-small diaphragm and voice coil moving in a magnetic field
-sound waves cause the diaphragm to move in the magnetic field, generating a voltage proportional.
when did RCA introduce its popular 77DX ribbon microphone
early 1940's by Harry Olson
how does a ribbon microphone work
-uses corrugated, thin ribbon suspended in magnetic field
-sound pressure between front and back cause it to move, with current flow proportional to acoustic waveform
which mic came 1st, 2nd, 3rd and what are they known for
1. capacitance- most sensitive
2. moving-coil- most durable
3. Microphones- most fragile
when did the neumann company begin manufacturing the quality condenser microphone known as the U-47
1948 standard of recording industry
which type of microphone must have a power supply ("phantom power") or a battery in order to operate
capacitance, more expensive
what is a polar pattern
graph of sensitivity with respect to direction and frequency
picks up sound equally in all direction
picks up primarily one direction
equal pick up from two opposite directions- figure 8
directional is also called
nondirectional is also called
<3 feet from source.
aides sound isolation, adds presence, minimized acoustics, little phrase cancellation
>3 feet from source
natural bland in acoustical space, "live" feel, room tone or ambience (spaciousness) high probability of phase cancellation
techniques to provide better isolation or separation when using multiple microphones in the recording studio
close mixing, leakage, baffle/gobo
each mic must be at least 3 times father apart then each is from its source.
effect of phase cancellation
reduces phase cancellation due to proximity of multiple mics to source
use of two mics to obtain a "coherent stereo imagine"- two ears
can be used in close or distant location
what is a loudspeaker and what does it do
transducer- converts one type of energy (electric) into another type (acoustic)
what are the three basic types of loudspeakers? most common?
moving coil (most common), ribbon, electrostatic
what does passive powering mean
loudspeakers and amplifier are separate units, with crossover between. less common; one amp
crossover feeds separate amps for each speaker; amps usually "built in" or "internal". most efficient, less distortion
how does frequency response and linearity describe the performance of a loudspeaker
measure of an audio systems ability to reduce a range of frequency with the same relative loudness. Output level (amplitude) verses frequency
signal in the reproduced sound that's not part of the original
what types of distortion are related to the loudspeaker
harmonic (THD)- harmonies in output not present in input
Overload distortion- signal is louder than the system can handle
how do room acoustics and the placement of loudspeakers affect their performance and what can we hear
center= "free field"
against wall= " half space"
in corner= "quarter space"
in upper corner= "eighth space"
loud speakers are placed in variable (walls). high sound pressure levels
how a loudspeaker focuses sound at the listening position
overdub and how does it affect the development of the audio console?
whole musical group did not have to be present at once. adding instruments not present during original performance
what are the basic functions performed by an audio console
takes input signal
processes= adjusts tine
combines= spatial positioning
balances= blend or mix
routes= outputs to recorder, monitors, etc
what is signal flow
"path" through a system, imp in describing use or function
what is a block diagram and what does it sho
describes a system by breaking into smaller sections or blocks. each block has a function and the diagram shows how they are connected together
--O-- slash through O
characteristics of 78 rpm discs and when was this standardized
1910- 10 in record the most popular (~3 min of material)
12 in record for classical music or opera (~5 min)
what is an LP when was it developed and by who
1930- RCA Victor- first commercially- available vinyl "longer-playing" record
33 1/3 rpm on a 12 in diameter flexible plastic disc
who is responsible for the development of 'stereo' recording and the 'stereo disc'? when?
1931- alan blumlein of EMI -cut the first stereo test disc using this system in 1933
'microgroove'- who developed it and when? what benefits are there to the LP and 45?
late 1940s- 2 formats introduced using narrower groove than 78s (microgroove) - 12" 33 1/3 rpm LP by columbia records in 1948 - 25-30 min/side for 'classical music'
what well-known artists used the 78 rpm format for some early releases
beatles and elvis (1958)
when were stereo discs first released
how is the vinyl LP still having an impact on the music recording industry
united record pressing
welcome to 1979
how does signal flow
left to right then top to bottom. starting point is the mic
time frame for discs
78, 33 1/3, 45 ---- 33 1/3 and 45 are both microgrooves