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2.1 City-States in Mesopotamia
Terms in this set (50)
Another name for Mesopotamia; was called this because of its richness of land
Lands facing the Mediterranean Sea
What are two other things Mesopotamia is called?
The land between two rivers and the crossroads of the world
What were the two rivers framing Mesopotamia?
The Tigris and the Euphrates
Did Mesopotamia have any natural barriers?
What was different about the flooding of the Tigris and the Euphrates River from the Nile?
The Tigris and Euphrates were unpredictable when it came to flooding
Who were their political leaders?
Generals became political leaders in city-states
What kind of government was Mesopotamia?
Self contained; self governed
Wha was the first known Mesopotamian civilization?
How did the Mesopotamians provide water?
They dug irrigation ditches
What did they use for defense?
They built city walls with mud bricks
How did Sumerians stand out in society?
One of the first groups of people to form a civilization
What are the five characteristics that set Sumer apart from earlier human societies?
Advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and improved technology
What were some Sumerian city states?
Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma, and Ur
How were city-states the same and how were they different?
They shared the same culture, but they developed their own governments
What was the center of all Sumerian cities?
Who were Sumer's earliest governments controlled by?
The temple priests
What did priests manage and demand?
They managed the irrigation systems.
They demanded a portion of every framer's crop as taxes.
Who led the city in time of war?
The men of the city would choose a tough fighter who would command the city's soldiers
What is a dynasty?
Series of rulers from a single bloodline or family
What did Sumerian city-states grow prosperous from?
Surplus food produced on their farms
What is cultural diffusion?
He spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another
What religion were the Sumerians?
Who was the most powerful god; god of storms and air?
Who protected the Sumerians from demons who caused disease, misfortune, and misery?
How did the Sumerians see their gods?
Immortal and all-powerful
Humans were nothing but their servants
How did the Sumerians see the afterlife?
A dark, unwelcoming cave
What was the role of Sumerian women?
They could be priests
They could hold property in their own names
Could work as merchants, farmers, and artisans
Some upper-class women could learn to read and write
What were the government responsibilities in Sumer?
To create a sense of order and build proper structures to maintain defense
What type of government was Sumer?
Which social class was formed from writing?
The merchant class
What was writing a statement of?
Sign of higher thought and importance
What was their form of writing called?
Hat did they use to write?
What did they write on?
What was their writing compiled of?
Pictograms and ideograms
What are the Sumerian legacies?
What did Sumer have during the empire age?
Who were the Akkadians?
The first peoples to show interest in growth
Who was the conquered of city-states in Sumer?
What did Sargon create with his army of Akkadians?
The worlds first empire
How long did Sargon's dynasty last?
What was the most important contribution of the Akkadians?
The Epic of Gilgamish
Who were the Amorites?
Nomadic warriors that invaded Mesopotamia
Where did the Amorites establish their capital?
What is the Ur-Nammu?
The idea of justice and responsibility from king to people
Who was Hammurabi?
A ruler that Babylon reached its peak under the rule of
What is Hammurabi's most enduring legacy?
The code of laws he put together
What was Hammurabi's code?
Uniform code of laws which covered all aspects of the law and a collection of rules, judgements, and laws
It distinguished between civil and criminal justice
Distinguished between major and minor offenses
Gave alternative punishments
Who discovered Hammurabi's code?
Fr. Vincent Scheil
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