gaia hypothesisseries of hypothesis that earth's organisms adjust the environment to keep it habitual for life.hot spota rising plume of magma from an opening in the crustinner coreThe solid, inner most layer of the Earth, composed of iron and nickel under extremely high pressure and temperaturelithospherethe solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
magma molten rock in the earth's crustmantlethe layer of the earth between the crust and the coremesospherethe layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere (45-80km)mid-atlantic ridgeThe spreading of the sea floor in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean as upwelling material forces the plates to move apart.moment magnitude scalea scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquakeouter corethe liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Corepangea(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland, 250 million years agopolar easterliesprevailing winds that bow from the NE ear the north pole or the SE near the south pole
precipitation Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.rain shadowthe dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing windrichter scalea scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic wavesseismec wavesvibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquakestratospherethe next layer of the atmosphere above the tropospheresubductionwhen two plates grind togetherthermospherethe atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere (extends from 80- 500km)
topography the surface features of a place or region. The topography of a region includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.trade windstropical winds that blow from the NE in the northern hemisphere from the SE in the southern hemispheretropospherehe layer of the atmosphere closest to the earths surface (10km)e deletedupwellingwhere deeper waters come to the surface. Ocurs in the Pacific along the south American coast. Upwellings provide nutrients for microscopic algae, which in turn support a complex food web. Coastal upwelling weakens considerably during years with El Nino events, temporarily reducing fish populations.weatherrefers to the conditions of an atmosphere in a given place or timewesterliesprevailing winds that blow from the SW in the Northern Hem. or the NW in the Southern hem.