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focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in cocktail party effect
after being distracted and refocusing on a particular stimulus, change in stimulus during distraction period goes undetected
organization of visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from surroundings (ground)
the ability to see objects in 3D although the images that strike our retina are 2D; allows us to judge distance
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from each eye, the brain computes distance; the greater the difference between two images the closer the object
binocular cue for perceiving depth; the estent to which the eyse converge inward when looking at an object; the greater the inward strain, the closer the object
depth cues such as interposition, relative size, and linear perspective available to each eye alone
a monocular cue; if we assume two objects are similar in size we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away
a monocular cue; if one object partially blocks the view of another, we perceive it as closer
a monocular cue; light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere therefore they are perceived as hazy and farther away than sharp, clear objects
a monocular cue; a gradual change from course, distinct texture to fine, indistinct textures signals increasing distance
a monocular cue; objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as farther away; causes the illusion that taller objects are longer than shorter objects
a monocular cue; as we move, objects that are stationary appear to move; the closer the object, the faster it appears to move
a monocular cue; parallel lines such as RR tracks, seem to converge with distance; the greater the convergence, the greater the distance perceived
light and shadow
a monocular cue; nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes, dimmer objects seem farther away (assuming light comes from above)
brain perceives continuous movement in rapid series of slightly varying images
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjcent lights blink on and off in quick succession
motion perception of objects
shrinking objects are perceived to be retreating, enlarging objects appear to be approaching; large objects appear to move slower than small objects
perceiving objects as unchanging (in lightness, color, shape, size) as illumination and retinal images change; relating to top-down processing)
objects are perceived as having constant lightness despite illumination variations
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another; determined by our schemas and experiences
distance determines length; lines farther away appear to be bigger than lines close to us
in vision, the ability to adjust an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Human factors psychologists
psychologists who explore how people and machines interact, and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use; help design appliances, work settings to fit natural perceptions
extrasensory perception (ESP)
controvercial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; said to include telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition
a type of ESP involving perceiving remote events, for example sensing that your friends house is burning down
related to ESP; mind over matter principle; for example levitating a table, influencing a roll of dice
problems with ESP
rejects our understanding that we are creatures whose minds are tied to our physical brains, and our belief that perceptual experiences of the world are built on sensations
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