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Milady chapter 20

Chemical texture services
acid- balanced waves
permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral ph because of their higher ph, they process at room temp. do not requrie added heat of hair dryer, process more quickly and produce firmer curls then true acid waves
alkaline waves
AKA: cold waves; have a ph between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate AGT and reducing agent and process at room temp.without the adding of heat
amino acids
compound made up of carbon, oxygen,hydrogen, and nitrogen, and sulfer
ammonia - free wave
perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use
ammonium thioglycolate ATG
active ingredient or reducing alkaline permanents
base control
position of the tool in relationship to its base section, determined by the angle in which the hair is wrapped
base cream
AKA: as protective base cream;oily cream used to protect the skin & scalp during hair relaxing
base direction
angle at which the rods is positioned on the head (horizontally,vertically, diagonally ) also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
base placement
refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section, base placement is determined by the angle at which hair is wrapped
base relaxers
relaxers that require the application of protective base cream, to the entire scalp prior to application of relaxers
base sections
subsection of panels which hair is divided for perm wrapping, one rod is normally placed on each base section
basic permanent wrap
AKA:straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction & are positioned on equal sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length & width as perm rods
book end wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope
bricklay permanent wrap
perm similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base section are often offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable splits and blend flow of hair
chemical hair relaxing
a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into straighter or smoother form
chemical texture service
hair service that cause a chemical change alters the natural wave pattern of the hair
concave rods
perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increase to larger diameter on the ends
croquignole perm wrap
perm in which the hair strands are wrapped from the end to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers
curvature permanent wrap
perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under , and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
double rod wrap
AKA: piggyback wrap: a wrap technique whereby extra long hair sis wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, another rod used to wrap remaining hair strand in same direction
end papers
AKA: wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods
endothermic waves
perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood type hair dryer
exothermic waves
create a exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing
glyceryl monothioglycolate GMTG
main active ingredient in true acid and acid balanced waving lotions
half off- base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned half of its base section
hydroxide neutralization
an acid - alkaline neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivate) the alkaline residues left in the hair by hydroxide relaxer and lowers the ph of the hair & scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds
hydroxide relaxers
very strong alkalis with ph over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
keratin proteins
long coiled polypeptide chains
process which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond & convert into a lanthionine bond
loop rod
AKA: circle rod; tool that is usually 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along entire length of rod
low - ph waves
perms that use sulfates, alternative to ammonium thioglycolate they have a low ph
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by a metal ( sodium, potassium, or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen
no - base relaxers
relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream
normalizing lotions
conditioners with an acidic ph that restores the hairs natural ph after a hydroxide relaxer prior to shampoo
off - base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off base
on - base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base
peptide bond
AKA: as end bonds; chemical bonds that join amino acid together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains
permanent waving
a two - step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical changed caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods, and the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer
polypeptide chains
long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
single flat wrap
perm wrap that is similar to double flat but uses only one end paper, placed over the top stand of hair being wrapped
soft bender rods
tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length
soft curl permanent
combination of thio relaxer and thio permanent, that is wrapped on large rods to make exciting curl larger and looser
spiral perm wrap
hair is wrapped at an angle rather than perpendicular to the length of the rod , which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to stripes on a candy cane
straight rods
perm rods that are equal in diameter along the entire length of curling area
thio neutralization
stops the action of the permanent wave solutions and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form
thio relaxers
uses the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in a permanent waxigng but at a higher concentration & higher ph (above 10)
thio - free wave
perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent such as cysteamine or mercaptamine
true acid waves
have a ph between 4.5 and 7.0 and requires heat to process, they process more slowly than alkaline waves do not produce firm curl as alkaline waves
the measurement of the thickness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows
weave technique
wrapping technique that use a zigzag partings to divide base areas