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Chemical texture services

acid- balanced waves

permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral ph because of their higher ph, they process at room temp. do not requrie added heat of hair dryer, process more quickly and produce firmer curls then true acid waves

alkaline waves

AKA: cold waves; have a ph between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate AGT and reducing agent and process at room temp.without the adding of heat

amino acids

compound made up of carbon, oxygen,hydrogen, and nitrogen, and sulfer

ammonia - free wave

perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use

ammonium thioglycolate ATG

active ingredient or reducing alkaline permanents

base control

position of the tool in relationship to its base section, determined by the angle in which the hair is wrapped

base cream

AKA: as protective base cream;oily cream used to protect the skin & scalp during hair relaxing

base direction

angle at which the rods is positioned on the head (horizontally,vertically, diagonally ) also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped

base placement

refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section, base placement is determined by the angle at which hair is wrapped

base relaxers

relaxers that require the application of protective base cream, to the entire scalp prior to application of relaxers

base sections

subsection of panels which hair is divided for perm wrapping, one rod is normally placed on each base section

basic permanent wrap

AKA:straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction & are positioned on equal sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length & width as perm rods

book end wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope

bricklay permanent wrap

perm similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base section are often offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable splits and blend flow of hair

chemical hair relaxing

a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into straighter or smoother form

chemical texture service

hair service that cause a chemical change alters the natural wave pattern of the hair

concave rods

perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increase to larger diameter on the ends

croquignole perm wrap

perm in which the hair strands are wrapped from the end to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers

curvature permanent wrap

perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

double flat wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under , and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped

double rod wrap

AKA: piggyback wrap: a wrap technique whereby extra long hair sis wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, another rod used to wrap remaining hair strand in same direction

end papers

AKA: wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods

endothermic waves

perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood type hair dryer

exothermic waves

create a exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing

glyceryl monothioglycolate GMTG

main active ingredient in true acid and acid balanced waving lotions

half off- base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned half of its base section

hydroxide neutralization

an acid - alkaline neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivate) the alkaline residues left in the hair by hydroxide relaxer and lowers the ph of the hair & scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds

hydroxide relaxers

very strong alkalis with ph over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers

keratin proteins

long coiled polypeptide chains


process which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond & convert into a lanthionine bond

loop rod

AKA: circle rod; tool that is usually 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along entire length of rod

low - ph waves

perms that use sulfates, alternative to ammonium thioglycolate they have a low ph

metal hydroxide relaxers

ionic compounds formed by a metal ( sodium, potassium, or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen

no - base relaxers

relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream

normalizing lotions

conditioners with an acidic ph that restores the hairs natural ph after a hydroxide relaxer prior to shampoo

off - base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off base

on - base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base

peptide bond

AKA: as end bonds; chemical bonds that join amino acid together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains

permanent waving

a two - step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical changed caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods, and the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer

polypeptide chains

long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

single flat wrap

perm wrap that is similar to double flat but uses only one end paper, placed over the top stand of hair being wrapped

soft bender rods

tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length

soft curl permanent

combination of thio relaxer and thio permanent, that is wrapped on large rods to make exciting curl larger and looser

spiral perm wrap

hair is wrapped at an angle rather than perpendicular to the length of the rod , which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to stripes on a candy cane

straight rods

perm rods that are equal in diameter along the entire length of curling area

thio neutralization

stops the action of the permanent wave solutions and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form

thio relaxers

uses the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in a permanent waxigng but at a higher concentration & higher ph (above 10)

thio - free wave

perm that uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent such as cysteamine or mercaptamine

true acid waves

have a ph between 4.5 and 7.0 and requires heat to process, they process more slowly than alkaline waves do not produce firm curl as alkaline waves


the measurement of the thickness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows

weave technique

wrapping technique that use a zigzag partings to divide base areas

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