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BS 161 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (56)
bond interactions (strongest to weakest)
5. Van der Waals
Any substance that dissociates in water to increase the H+ and lower the pH. The stronger it is, the more H+ it produces and the lower its pH.
A substance that combines with H+ when dissolved in water and thus lowers the pH.
Has pH values above 7.
common groups of atoms found in large biomolecules.
Molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
4 classes of biological macromolecules
4. Nucleic acids
A molecule built of repeating subunits (monomers)
When a water molecule is removed every time a subunit is added to a macromolecule.
When a molecule of water is added.
The simplest form of carbohydrate sugars
The transport form of sugar that is made by linking two monosaccharides together.
Longer sugar polymers made up of monosaccharides that have been joined through dehydration reactions.
Insoluble storage polysaccharides.
The comparable molecule to starch in animals.
B-glucose chain that serves as structural material for cells.
The structural material found in arthropods and many fungi, a substituted version of glucose.
7 functions of proteins
1. Enzyme catalyst
The sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Contains an amino group and an acidic carboxyl group. The specific order of amino acids determines the protein's structure and function.
The covalent bond that links 2 amino acids.
The unbranched chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds on a protein.
Results in hydrogen bonds forming between nearby amino acids. This produces B-pleated sheets and alpha helices.
The final 3D structure of the protein. Determines how regions of secondary structure are further folded in space to form the final shape of the protein.
Only found in proteins with multiple polypeptides. The final structure of the protein is the arrangement of the multiple polypeptides in space.
Help proteins fold correctly within cells.
When a protein changes its shape or unfolds completely.
Reasons for denaturation
When the pH, temperature, or ionic concentration of the surrounding solution changes.
When a protein's normal environment is reestablished after denaturation and a small protein spontaneously refolds into its natural shape.
Found in the nuclear region of the cell, contains the genetic information necessary to build specific organisms.
How is RNA different from DNA?
RNA molecules contain ribose sugars in which the C-2 is bonded to a hydroxyl group.
RNA molecules use Uracil in place of thymine.
The energy currency of the cell. Contains a sugar, Adenine, and a chain of three phosphates.
A group of molecules that are insoluble in water.
Saturated fatty acids
If all of the internal carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains are bonded to at least two hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated fatty acids
A fatty acid that has double bonds between one or more pairs of successive carbon atoms.
The cell theory
1. Cells are the fundamental units of all living things
2. Cells are created from other cells
Any discrete macromolecular structure in the cytoplasm specialized for a particular function..
Encloses every cell, separating its contents from the surroundings.
help molecules and ions move across the plasma membrane.
Carry out protein synthesis
protect the cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake or loss of water.
Carries amino acids
Arising from the golgi apparatus, they contain high levels of degrading enzymes which catalyze the rapid breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Functions of membrane proteins
3. Cell-surface receptors
4. Cell-surface identity markers
5. Cell-to-cell adhesion proteins
6. Cytoskeleton anchors
The movement of substances from regions of high concentration to lower concentration.
Process of diffusion mediated by a membrane protein.
Contain a hydrophilic interior that provides a channel through which polar molecules can pass when the channel is open.
Proteins that bind specifically to the molecule they assist.
Water is the ______
Substances dissolved in the water are __________
The net diffusion of water across a membrane toward a higher solute concentration
Cells moving up the concentration gradient, requiring energy (from ATP)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BS 161 - Exam 1
Exam 1 BS 161
BS 161 EXAM 1
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