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87 terms

Chapter 2 Part II: The CNS

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hypothalamus
The part of the rain responsible for emotional behavior and regulating the nervous system in times of stress
hypothalamus
Regulates eating, regulates the "restorative" functioning of the autonomic nervous system after an emergency has passed
hypothalamus
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, temperature control, and sleeping are most strongly influenced by this
thalamus
Part of the brain that can be thought of as a major switching station that directs incoming information to the correct brain structure
thalamus
The brain's "relay" station
thalamus
The structure in the center of the forebrain that relays sensory information
breathe
Damage to the medulla can seriously impair one's ability to
hypothalamus
The part of the brain that is very involved in motivation, hunger, thirst, and emotional behavior such as experiencing rage, terror, or pleasure
amygdala
The part of the brain that, along with the hippocampus, regulates aggression and other emotions and establishes emotional memories
limbic system
System important to motivation
three
The brain can be divided into how many layers that evolved in different stages of evolution?
hindbrain
At the point where the spinal cord enters the skull, it becomes the
hindbrain
Earliest part of the brain that evolved
hindbrain
Part of the brain containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
medulla
Part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
medulla
The point at which the nerves from the left side of the body cross over into the right side of the brain and vice versa
pons
The structure in the hindbrain that transmits messages to the upper areas of the brain and produces chemicals that help maintain our wake-sleep cycle
cerebellum
Responsible for balance and coordination
cerebellum
"little brain"
cerebellum
Part of hindbrain involved in emotional control, attention, memory, and coordinating sensory information
midbrain
The part of the brain where pain is registered and which is important in hearing and sight
midbrain
Largely involved with sight, perception of pain, and hearing
thalamus
The structure directly over the brain stem that relays and translates sensory information
thalamus
The part of the brain which acts as a switchboard or relay station, sending incoming messages to the appropriate areas of the brain
hypothalamus
The part of the brain that acts like a "thermostat", regulating hunger, thirst, sexual drive, and body temperature
hypothalamus
The part of the brain responsible for emotional behavior such as experiencing rage, terror, or pleasure
hypothalamus
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the
corpus callosum
The thick bundle of nerves connecting the two cerebral hemispheres which coordinates their activities
Broca
Set forth the notion that human language is primarily controlled by the left hemisphere
talking
Broca's area is important for this
listening
Wernike's area is important for this
aphasias
Language difficulties that often result from strokes or other brain injuries
90
Approximately __% of humans are right-handed
left
__________-handedness appears to be the result of a combination of genetic, environmental, and prenatal influences
neural plasticity
The ability of the brain to change in response to experience
three
The brain can be divided into _____ layers that evolved in different stages of evolution
cerebral cortex
The most recent part of the nervous system to evolve
primary motor cortex
Section of the frontal love responsible for voluntary movement
frontal
Phineas Gage was a foreman on a railroad crew who suffered brain damage in a blasting accident. After the accident he lost interest in his job and had difficulty maintaining goal-directed behaviors. He seemed apathetic and capable of only shallow emotions. The damaged part of this brain was probably the _________ lobe.
hippocampus
George was in an automobile accident several years ago in which he suffered severe head injuries. Since the mishap, he has been unable to form new memories. He can remember everything he did before the accident but he cannot remember what he just said five minutes ago. The part of George's brain that was injured was probably the ___________.
amygdala and hippocampus
The limbic system structures that seem especially important to emotions related to self-preservation and when stimulated cause fear or panic reactions or attack behaviors
temporal
The part of the brain that helps regulate hearing, balance & equilibrium, certain emotions and motivation, and recognizing faces is the _________ lobe.
central
The division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord is the __________ nervous system.
peripheral
The division of the nervous system that connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body is the ___________ nervous system.
brain and spinal cord
The central nervous system consists of the __________ and the ___________.
microelectrode recording technique
A technique in which a tiny quartz or glass pipette that is filled with conducting fluid and placed on the surface of a neuron so that scientists can study changes in the electrical conditions of that particular neuron is called a ________ _______ __________.
Structural imaging
______________ ___________ techniques are used to map structures in the living brain.
magnetic resonance imaging
What provides the best map of physical structures in the brains of living human beings?
positron emission tomography (PET) scanning
A brain imaging technique that uses radioactive energy to map brain activity
slightly more
Males are ______ _______ likely than females to be left-handed.
left
The hemisphere that specializes in analyzing sequences and details
expressive
Amy has suffered damage to Broca's area in her brain. She is most likely to exhibit ________ aphasia.
receptive
Amy has suffered damage to Wernike's area in her brain. She is most likely to exhibit ________ aphasia.
split brain
Patients who have had their corpus callosum cut
left
The hemisphere most involved in preserving one's sense of identity of "self"
left
The hemisphere usually dominant in language tasks
hindbrain
The point where the spinal cord enters the brain
hindbrain
Believed to be the earliest part of the brain that evolved
medulla
Part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
pons
A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night, her difficulties most likely due to problems in her ______.
pons
The structure in the hindbrain that transmits messages to the upper areas of the brain and produces chemicals that help maintain our wake-sleep cycle
cerebellum
A young woman recovering from a blow to her head finds she has great difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her movements. Injury to which part of the brain?
cerebellum
Susan has a degenerative disease which causes her to lose her balance easily and to move in a jerky and uncoordinated way. She cannot drink from a glass without spilling it or touch her toes without falling over. The disease is affecting her ___________.
midbrain
Involved in perception of pain, sight, and hearing... NOT HUNGER AND THIRST
thalamus
The structure directly over the brain stem that relays and translates sensory information
70
The cerebral cortex contains about ___% of the neurons in the central nervous system.
frontal
The love of the brain most involved in motivation, persistence, emotional responses, character, and moral decision making
parietal
The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the __________ lobe.
limbic system
Responsible for controlling learning and emotional behavior
hypothalamus
Our ability to read the facial expressions of emotion in other people is registered where?
90
The brain and spinal cord contain about __% of the body's neurons
10
The peripheral nervous system contains about __& of the body's neurons
macroelectrode
Techniques used to obtain an overall picture of activity in particular regions of the brain
microelectrode
Techniques used to study single neurons
microelectrode
Techniques used to study the functions of single neurons
Functional imagining
Techniques used to observe neural activity as it reacts to sensory stimuli
fMRI
A brain imaging technique that measures the movement of blood in the brain
functional imaging
Examples of this technique: PET and MEG
EEG
Brain scanning technique that offers the most hope for understanding disorders such as amnesia and dyslexia
cry
A patient suffering from a seizure disorder has his left hemisphere anesthetized, what will he do?
laugh
A patient suffering from a seizure disorder has his right hemisphere anesthetized, what will he do?
right
Hemisphere that specializes holistic processing
left
More active hemisphere if a person is cheerful, sociable, and self-confident
right
More active hemisphere if a person is more easily stressed, frightened, and depressed
hindbrain
Part of brain containing medulla, pons, and cerebellum
structural imaging
technique that measures various brain waves
MEG
First window into the electrical activity of a living brain