125 terms

Chapter 4 APES

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Climate
Average weather that occurs in a region over a long period.
Layers of Atmosphere
Troposphere
Most of the N2, O2 and H2O vapor is here. Densest Layer of Atmosphere. Where weather occurs.
Stratosphere
Less dense. Ozone is formed here. Blocks UV radiation
Albedo
% of incoming sunlight that is reflected from a surface, the ability of an object to reflect light
Properties of Air
Saturation Point
Adiabatic Cooling
Adiabatic Heating
Saturation Point
Max amount of H2O vapor that can be in the air
Adiabatic Cooling
Lower pressure lowers the temp of air and expands its volume
Adiabatic Heating
Higher pressure decreases the volume and raises the air temp
Latent heat release
Water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid and energy is released
Hadley Cell
Convection Currents that cycle between the equator, 30 degrees North and South.
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight
Polar Cells
Air currents above 60 degrees North and South
Coriolis Effect
The deflection of an objects path due to Earth's rotation
Gyres
Large scale patterns of Water circulation. Ocean surface currents rotate in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Upwelling
Deeper water rising and replacing the previous water. (The upward movement) brings in nutrients
Thermohaline Circulation
Drives the mixing of surface water and deeper water. Critical for moving heat and nutrients around the globe.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
Periodic changes in winds and ocean currents.
Rain Shadows
one side of a mountain receives all the rain while another does not due to moisture falling on the windward side of the mountain
Biome
Particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to its climate.
Tundra
Cold, treeless, low growing vegetation. Completely frozen in winter.
Permafrost
Underlying subsoil prevents water from draining and roots from penetrating.
Boreal Forest
Forests made of cone bearing evergreen trees which can tolerate winter.
Temperate Rainforest
Moderate temps and high precipitation.
Temperate Seasonal Forest
More abundant than temperate rainforests.
Woodland/Shrubland
Hot, dry summers and mild rainy winters. 12 month growing season but restricted in summer and in winter.
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert
Biome has the lowest average precipitation of any biome. Cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers.
Tropical Rainforests
Near the equator. Warm with lots of precipitation. Little seasonal temperature variation. Most diverse biome.
Tropical Seasonal Forests/Savanna
Warm Temperatures and distinct wet/dry seasons.
Subtropical Desert
Dry air, little water, lots of sun, hot weather.
Littoral Zone
Shallow are of soil and water near the shore where algae and plants grow. Most photosynthesis occurs here
Limnetic Zone
Open water where rooted plants can't live
Phytoplankton
Only photosynthetic organisms in the open water.
Profundal Zone
Below the limnetic zone where sunlight can't reach. Bacteria will decompose here.
Benthic Zone
Muddy bottom of a lake/pond
Freshwater Wetlands
Aquatic biomes that are submerged or saturated by water for at least part of the year, but still support species of plants that can live in wet soils.
Salt Marshes
Nonwoody emergent vegetation. Along the coast in temperate climates.
Mangrove Swamps
Along tropical/subtropical coasts. Contain trees whose roots are submerged in water. Salt tolerant.
Intertidal Zone
Narrow band of coastline between levels of high and low tide. Steep to Rocky. Harsh conditions with water crashing all around.
Coral Reefs
Warm, Shallow waters beyond the coastline. Most diverse marine biome.
Coral Bleaching
Algae inside corals will die. This will cause the coral to die. The reef will then turn white.
Photic Zone
Upper layer of water that receives sunlight for photosynthesis.
Aphotic Zone
Layer of water that does not get sunlight for photosynthesis.
Chemosynthesis
Bacteria using energy from the bonds of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Found in the deep ocean.
stratosphere
which layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone?
equator
at this location air rises and large amounts of precipitation fall
U-shaped
A temperature line on a climatograph in the southern hemisphere would have what shape?
straight line
a temperature line on a climatograph near the equator would tend to have what shape?
equator or 0 degrees
at what position on earth does the earth move at the highest velocity?
High Pressure
what type of pressure would we expect do see in desert biomes?
Low Pressure
what type of pressure would we expect to see at the equator and around 50-60 degrees north latitude?
diagram to know
know this diagram and be able to fill in if missing words
clockwise
which direction do gyres flow in the northern hemisphere?
counterclockwise
which direction to gyres flow in the southern hemisphere?
global conveyor belt
what term describes the deep water circulation of the ocean?
el nino
this phenomenon is characterized by weakened trade winds and a lack of upwelling in the Pacific Ocean
la nino
this phenomenon is characterized by strong trade winds and upwelling in the Pacific Ocean
southern US
what area of the US would experience severe dryness during a La Nina?
central US
what area of the US would experience more moisture during a La Nina?
see diagram
Know this diagram, identify where the ocean water is sinking and rising and why
Left side
which side is the windward and wet side?
right side
which side is the leeward and dry side?
central US
in which location is this rain shadow picture located? central us or south america?
it decreases
what happens to temperature as you move upward through the troposphere?
Tropic of Cancer
what line is the arrow pointing to?
Tropic of Capricorn
what line is the arrow point to?
1. polar easterlies
2. westerlies
3. Northeast Trade Winds
4. ITCZ (Intertropical convergence zone)
5. Southeast Trade WInds
label 1-5
Equinox
This happens twice a year in the spring and fall when there is approximately equal lengths of day and night all over the earth.
troposphere
The densest layer of the atmosphere is the _________
a. Upward
In what direction does the air generally move at the equator? a. upward b. downward c. horizontally
b. Downward
In what direction does the air generally move at the poles? a. Upward b. Downward. C. Horizontally
High, since the air is falling
Generally what type of pressure system is found at the poles? high or low
Low, since the air is rising
Generally what type of pressure system is found at the equator? high or low
gyres
the major role of these is that they distribute heat from the Equator to Northern latitudes (and to southern latitudes)
Tropical Pacific Ocean
where does El Nino occur?
leeward
what side of the mountain receives the least rain in the rain shadow effect?
windward
What side of the mountain receives the most rain in the rain shadow effect?
swamp
which wetland contains trees? swamp, marsh or bog
marsh
which wetland is wet for all or part of the year and contains plants like cattails? swamp, marsh or bog
bog
which wetland has little or no water flowing out of it and tends to become acidic?
benthic, littoral, limnetic, aphotic and photic
Know the zones of a lake.
aphotic
which zone of a lake has no light
benthic
which zone of a lake contains the most decomposers, (ie Bacteria)
intertidal zone
which zone in the ocean contains high and low tide?
limnetic zone
which zone contains phytoplankton but not rooted plants?
spring and fall
what time of year does a temperate lake experience turnover?
agricultural waste and fertilizer and nutrient effluent from waste treatment plants.
what are the main causes of Dead Zones like the Gulf of Mexico?
4 degrees celcius
at what temperature is water in a lake MOST dense?
0 degrees celcius (because it is ice at that temperature and ice floats on water!!!!)
at what temperature is water in a lake the LEAST dense?
71%
How much of the earth is ocean? (give percentage)
about 2%
How much of the worlds water is fresh?
oxygen, nutrients
When a lake turns over it brings ______ to the bottom and ____ to the top
Thermosphere
layer of the atmosphere where the northern lights occurs (aurora borealis)
microclimate
a small area that has a different climate, for example a city, mountain, ravine, sand dune
climate
what is the major factor that determines a biomes location?
oaks, maples, hickories
what are examples of deciduous trees?
to have cones (as a white pine does)
what does it mean to be coniferous?
off roading, nuclear testing, military maneuvers
how do humans impact a desert?
precipitation which is less than 10 in per year
what is a major limiting factor in the desert?
temperatures above zero degrees celcius
what is a major limiting factor in the tundra?
savanna
a grassland that has trees is called a _______
nutrients
what is a major limiting factor in the rainforest?
in the living organisms
where are most of the nutrients found in a rainforest since they are not in the shallow soil?
farming, building homes and cities, drilling wells
how do humans affect the grasslands?
wind
what is the least likely way for pollination to occur in a rainforest?
it is difficult for trees to survive in cold harsh conditions
why are there so few species of trees in the boreal forest?
nutrients, dissolved oxygen and warm water
what do coral reefs need to be healthy? (3 things)
ocean acidification, harvesting of coral by tourists, climate change, thinning ozone layer that allows more intense sun radiation
what are threats to coral reefs?
filter chemicals, habitat for animals, nursery for animals, absorb excess nutrients before they reach the ocean, carbon storage in the biomass
what are some services that estuaries provide?
abyssal zone
in which zone of the ocean would I expect to find organisms performing chemosynthesis?
littoral zone
what zone in a lake includes the emergent vegetation like cattails and lily pads?
benthic zone
what zone is the bottom of a lake?
limnetic zone
what zone is the area of a lake where no emergent plants exist? (open water)
continental shelf
what zone of the ocean holds 90% of the biodiversity?
bathyal zone
what zone of the ocean is dimly lit? From 200 meters to 1500 meters?
relative humidity
the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.
6
number of major wind belts on earth
right
In the northern hemisphere, wind masses are deflected to the ________ of their path
left
in the southern hemisphere, wind masses are deflected to the ______ of their path
5
How many major ocean gyres exist?
cold, salty water
What drives deep thermohaline circulation?
emergent layer
In what layer of the rainforest would I find tall trees with small leaves and lots of sunlight?
understory
In what layer of the rainforest would I find vines and epiphytes (like orchids) and monkeys swinging from the branches?
canopy
the layer of the rainforest that has lots of leaves
understory
the layer of the rainforest that is mostly open and walkable
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