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Motor Learning and Control
Chapters 4- 6
Terms in this set (54)
Ability important for peforming task requiring the manipulation of small objects
Closed Loop Control
-a type of control that involves the use of feedback and the activity of error detection and correction processes to maintian a desired state
-used to control slow, deliberate movements
Open Loop Control
-a type of control that involves the use of centrally determined, prestructured commnds sent to the effector system and executed without feedback
-used to control rapid, discrete movements
-it is effective as long as the circumstances surrounding the actionare unchanged
-it is unflexible in the face of unexpected changes
Open Loop Control
-especially effective in enviromental situations that are predictable and stable, where the need for modification of the action is minimal.
-A deficiency of the simple motor- program notion, which presumes the need for a vast memory capacity to store seperate programs for controlling the nearly inifinte number of movements people are able to produce
- all the different combinations of movements
- A set of motor commands that is prestructured at the executive level and that defines the essential details of a skilled action; analouges to a central pattern generator
-More sophisticated the motor program the longer it can run and the larger the chunk of skilled behavior it can control.
- Major Advantage: far less attention is needed for movement production
-developed over practice and used to control learned activities
Generalized Motor Progam
-Presumed to contain a stored movement pattern that can be modified slightly when it is executed, allowing performers to adjust the movement to meet various enviromental demands.
- A deficiency of the simple motor-program notion; which presumes that people are unable to produce novel movements or unpracticed variations of learned movements because they have not developed specific motor programs for producing them.
-Able to produce the movement somewhat effectively that we have never done.
- Involves severing one or more of the dorsal-root bundles at the points where they enter the cord. The central nervous system no longer can recieve sensory information from a particular portion of the periphery, such as an entire limb or even several limbs.
Central Pattern Generator
- Purports to explain certain features of repetitive actions, such as locomotion or chewing.
- Increases when additional elements are added to a movement
- Increases when movements involve the coordination of a greater number of limbs
- Increase when the duration of the movement becomes longer
- A type of task that requires performers to produce movements that coincide in time, space, or both with an external object or event
- Remain constant even when a performer makes subtle adjustments in the movement to meet changing enviromental demands.
- A measure of the temporal structure of a movement, in which the ratios among the durations of various movement features are used to define the temporal pattern.
- Measure of the fundamental timing structure or rhythm of a movement pattern and this rhythm remains the same even when people change the flexible surfaces features of the pattern.
- Signature characteristics that helps us identify the movement and also differienante it from other movements
- The easily changeable components of a movement, such as movement time or amplitude,that are modified as a result of changing parameters
- Most important principles of movement control is that relative timing remains essentially the same whenever performers change the:
1. speed of rapid movements
2. size of the action
3. forces used to produce the action
4. trajectoy of the movement
5.the limb used for action
Speed- accuracy trade- off
- The tendencyfor individuals to substitute accurracy for speed, or vice versa in their movements depending on task requirement
- The most fundamental principle of human movement is the one dealing with the relationship between the speed and accuracy of a movement
- The law of movement control for rapid aiming tasks, stating that movement time is linearly related to the index of movement difficulty
- Concerning movement speed and accuracy
- Major Contribution: combined effects of different W's and different A's into the same expension
Dick Schmidt's Research
- Found that the amount of spatial movement error, or the variability of movement end points at the target is linearly related to the movements average velocity- that is, to ration of movement aamplitude to movement time
Linear Speed- Accuracy Trade Off
- The tendency for the spatial variability of movement end points to increase as performers increases the velocity of rapid aiming movements
- The type of accuracy required of aiming movements for whuch spatial position of the movement's end points is important to task performance.
- The type of accuracy required of rapid movements for which accuracy of the movement in time is important to task performance.
Phonograph Record Analogy
- Practical illustration of how output can be both invariant and flexible at the same time.
- Stable, enduring differences among individuals performances often attributable to differences in their abilites
A method scientists use to examine factors that influnce the performance or behavior of people of generally
- A method scientists use to examine differences among people.
- Stable, enduring traits, that for the most part, are genetically determined and that underlie a person's skill in a variety of tasks. People differ with respect to their patterns of strong and weak abilites, resulting in differences in their levels of skills.
- Many kinds of abilites exist throughout the human perceptual-motor system such as visual actvity, body configuration, reaction time, manual dexterity, and kinesthetic sensitivity
-"Ingredients" of a skill
- The underlying potential for performance in a given task, which changes the practice, experience, and a host of situational and enviromental factors.
Drowatzky and Zuccato
-Examined participants performance on six balance tasks.
- Offer no support for the notion that people posses a solitary, general motor ability.
-A view propsed by Henry that a large number of distinct, specific and independent motor abilites are the basis for each specific motor performance.
- All types of motor performance are based on a very large number of specific abilities that are independent of each other. A person's performance on any given task (fly fishing) based on a unique combinations of abilities, with some being more important than others.
- The connection between peoples performance on any two tasks should be close to zero because each task would require a unique combination of abilities.
-Suggests that there may also be several abilites related to the performance of timing and force control tasks
~ Force control
- Has been the discovery of relatively consistent levels of task performance within individuals.
-Abilites are indepedent of each other. The total number of presumed abilities, the number of abilities invloved in the performance of any given task, and the extent to which the same abilities are important to the performance of different tasks
- 2 Fundamental Categroies
~Labeled percepetual- motor abilities and physical- profienecy abilities
Abilties and Practical Application
- Assume that all people possess the same abilities, but that the patterns of peoples strengths and weaknesses are different
-Pattern of each persons strengths and weaknesses will determine which kinds of tasks for which we could expect excellence of failure in that persons performance
- Pattern of each persons abilities is but one of many factors contrubuting to iindividuals ultimate level of performance
- Practice,experieneces, opportunities
Degrees of freedom
all of the indep components of a control system and the number of ways each can act
Motor program control advantages
-Not as much attention is needed for movement production
-Entire sequences of action can be run off without the need for additional organization
-The more sophisticated the MP, the longer the program runs and the larger the chunk of skilled behavior it controls.
-With this, the RP stage is involved less often and attentional space is freed up to perform other higher-order activities (strategic plans, safety hazards, movement form or style
-The particular muscles that are needed to produce the action
-The order in which these muscles are to be activated
-The relative forces of the various muscle contractions
-The relative timing and sequencing of these contractions
-The duration of the respective contractions
Reflex Reversal Phenomenon
reflex activity to tactile stimulus involving different responses (stubbing toe)
Major role of Motor Programs
-To define and issue the commands that ultimately determine which muscles to contract, when, and how forcefully
-To organize the many degrees of freedom of the muscles and joints into a single unit to produce an effective and efficient action
-To specify and initiate preliminary postural adjustments that performers need to support the upcoming action
-To modulate the many reflex pathways to ensure that the movement goal is achieved
-Armstrong (1970)- control stick experiment
-Aspects of the goal pattern are represented by a common temporal arrangement that can be run off at diff. speeds
-Hollerbach (1978)- handwriting experiment
-People can vary the amplitude of their movements by increasing or decreasing acceleration, while preserving temporal pattern
Limb and Muscles Used
-People can produce the same movement pattern even when using different effectors (handwriting examples). Raibert (1977)
A useful method for classifying motor tasks. First the various components of the task are identified, and then the types of abilities that underlie task performance are estimated
The ability to measure the strength of a relationship between performance scores on two tasks; similarities between tasks
Ability important for serving a tennis ball or playing the piano
Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one brief and forceful act
Ability to stretch the body as far as possible in various directions
Ability important for performing tasks requiring accurate judgments about the time course of external events
Ability important for performing tasks requiring changes in the intensity of muscle contractions
Central Pattern Generator
Thought to control genetically defined, repetitive actions
generalized motor program
Defines a flexible pattern of movement rather than a specific action
an explanation for how people control coordinated movements that emphasizes the interaction of dynamic properties of the neuromuscular system and physical properties of environmental information.
Polit and Bizzi
found that monkeys that had previously learned to point at specific lights arranged in a semicircle could still do so after the forelimb was deafferented.
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