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Terms in this set (42)
Cells that have a nucleus containing DNA along with many different kinds of organelles. These cell are usually complex and found in larger organisms. (Fungi, Plants, Animals, and Protists)
Cells that have no nucleus and few organelles. Their DNA is found floating within the cell. They are simple in nature and can reproduce quickly. These cells are thought to be the earliest forms of life on the planet. ( bacteria)
the fluid inside of the cell. Its texture is like toothpaste: thick not watery.
Cell walls provide extra support to the plant and prevent the cell from bursting. They provide protection for the bacteria. Makes them harder to kill with antibiotics - hard to penetrate the cell wall
also known as cell membrane. made of phospholipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell. All cells have this membrane
Plasma (cell) membrane also helps to:
-maintain homeostasis by separating the internal and external
- Communicate with other cells
DNA and proteins
Chromatin and ribosome subunits
Membrane with pores that separates inside from outside of nucleus
Fluid inside the nucleus.
Protein synthesis occurs, most numerous organelle in the cell (thousands).
The endoplasmic reticulum
A system of folded membranes that form channels for moving proteins throughout the cell
covered with ribosomes. Newly made proteins are transported through membranes to golgi to be packaged.
lacks ribosomes and is the place where lipids and sugars are made. These molecules are then distributed within the cell as needed.
The Golgi Apparatus
Consists of stacks of curved membranes.
The Golgi apparatus receives substances from ER and packages them into golgi bodies.
Golgi Bodies are then transported within the cell or exported from the cell.
Sacs produced by the Golgi apparatus Contain enzymes and are involved in digestion of old worn-out cell parts, invading bacteria
Vacuoles (large) and vesicles (small)
sacs in the cell that store substances, such as waste, water, minerals and food.
site where plants make sugar from light energy from the sun
organelle responsible for breaking down molecules into useable energy (contains its own DNA)
responsible for cell shape and movement of substances within the cell and extends from the nucleus to the plasma membrane It's found only in eukaryotic cells.
short cylinders thought to play an important role in cell division. They occur in pairs and lie immediately outside the nucleus.
They help to move chromosomes during cell division.
small, hair-like structures that beat in unison to move the cell or help move substance over the surface of the cell
long, tail-like structures that allow the cell to move forward (sperm
extensions of the plasma membrane where the cytoplasm is shifted in the direction of movement
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Cilia, Flagella and Pseudopodia
The cell theory
1. All organisms are composed of
one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function
3. All cells come only from other cells.
responsible for controlling the activities of the cell:
- protein synthesis - cell division - cell growth and differentiation - genetics/heredity
Plasma (cell) Membrane
Membrane is made of a special kind of lipid
-"Phospholipids" made of two fatty acid chains
• Membrane is a double-layer membrane
helps larger and charged molecules to move in and out of the cell. Can act as
'tunnels' for substances to pass through
Reduces membrane fluidity by reducing phospholipid movement. Also stops the membrane from becoming solid at room temperatures.
Glycolipids and Glycoproteins
Act as receptors - receive information from body to tell cell what to do (works like an antenna)
The diffusion of water
Move from HIGH to LOW directly through the lipid portion of the membrane
Move from HIGH to LOW through a protein because of electrical charges
• Need help from a transport protein to get across membrane
Less solute in an area
More solute in an area
solute amount is the same in both areas
Exocytosis (out of cell)
The fusion of a vesicle with the cell membrane, releasing its contents to its outer surroundings
Endocytosis (into a cell)
Budding of a vesicle from cell membrane, enclosing materials and bringing them into the cell from the
outside - pinocytosis - phagocytosis
- "cellular drinking"
- the cell envelopes the surrounding extracellular fluid and takes in any solutes with it.
- "cell engulfment"
- the cell envelopes its specific target bring in large substances
-Ex: White blood cell
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