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The Human Body, an orientation
Terms in this set (22)
Anatomy Vs Physiology
anatomy is: the study of the structure and shape of the body and the body parts and their relationship to one another. Gross Anatomy is the easily observable structures seen with the naked eye. Microscopic Anatomy needs a microscope to be meaningfully observed.
Physiology is the study of HOW the body and its parts work or function.
What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
Structure determines what functions can take place
Levels of Organization of life: Fig. 1-1
1)chemical level (atoms become molecules)
2) Cellular level (molecules comprise cells)
3) Tissue level (consists of similar types of cells)
4) Organ level (made up of at least 2-types of tissue)
5) Organ System Level (different organs working together closely. 11 systems)
6) Organismal level (human organisms)
Organ system overview: Fig. 1-2
1) Integumentary System
2) Skeletal System
3) Muscular System
4) Nervous System
5) Endocrine System
6) Cardiovascular System
7) Lymphatic System
8) Respiratory System
9) Digestive System
10) Urinary System
11) Reproductive System
Is the tendency of the body system to maintain a relatively constant or balanced internal environment.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms (homeostatic control mechanisms)
a characteristic of most homeostatic control mechanisms where the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity (like an automatic control on the thermostat)
Positive Feedback Mechanisms (homeostatic control mechanisms)
much more rare in the human body. the response enhances the initial stimulus.
Most disease in the human body is a result of this....
homeostatic imbalance. occurs as the body ages and does not balance itself out as well.
Eight necessary life functions
Maintenance of boundaries, movement, responsiveness, metabolism, excretion, digestion, growth, reproduction.
five survival needs
nutrients, oxygen, water, appropriate atmospheric pressure, appropriate body temperature
Anatomical position is important because...
it always assumes the body is in a standard position referred to when using anatomical terminology. The body is erect with the feet together and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Body landmarks are anterior (ventral), Posterior (dorsal) or....
Anterior (ventral) body landmarks
abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
acromial: point of shoulder
antecubital: anterior surface of elbow
buccal: cheek area
deltoid: curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
digital: fingers, toes
fibular: lateral part of leg
inguinal: area where thigh meets body trunk
orbital: eye area
patellar: anterior knee
pelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
pubic: genital region
sternal: breastbone area
Posterior (dorsal) body landmarks
deltoid: curve of the shoulder formed by the large deltoid muscle
digital: fingers, toes
lumbar: area of back between ribs and hips
occipital: posterior surface of head
olecranal: posterior surface of elbow
popliteal: posterior knee area
sacral: area between hips
scapular: shoulder blade region
sural: posterior surface of lower leg, the calf
vertebral: area of the spine
Body Planes (imaginary lines where cuts are made) and sections (cuts)
Sagittal- cut is made along the longitudinal (lengthwise) plane of the body (or organ), dividing the body into right and left parts.
cut is made down the median plane of the body producing equal right and left parts
cut is made along the longitudinal (lengthwise) plane of the body (or an organ) dividing the organ into anterior and posterior parts
cut is made along a transverse (horizontal) plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
dorsal body cavities
cranial-posterior space inside the bony skull that houses the brain
spinal- posterior space inside the bony vertebral column that houses the spinal cord
ventral body cavities
abdominopelvic-anterior space that is inferior to the dome-shaped muscle, the diaphragm; contains the stomach, spleen, small and large intestines, kidneys, ureters, uterus, liver, bladder, rectum, ovaries and other organs. this includes the abdominal cavity or the superior part of the AP cavity (stomach liver, small/large intestines, kidneys, ureters and other organs) and the pelvic cavity or the inferior part of the AP cavity (reproductive organs, bladder, rectum, etc.)
Thoracic Cavity- is the anterior space that is superior to the dome shaped muscle, the diaphragm; contains the heart, lungs, trachea etc.
Four Quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity
RUQ-liver, gall bladder, kidneys, large intestine, pancreas, other abdominal organs
LUQ- kidneys, stomach, spleen, liver, large intestine, pancreas and other
RLQ- urinary bladder, uterus, small and large intestine etc
LLQ- urinary bladder, uterus, small and large intestine etc
Nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity
Umbilical-centermost region, navel, small intesine
Epigastric- superior to umbilical, stomach, liver
hypogastric/pubic- inferior to umbilical, rectum ovaries, bladder
right lliac/inguinal- lateral to hypogastric region on the right
left lliac/inguinal- lateral to hypogastric region on the left
right lumbar-lateral to umbilical region to the right
left lumbar- lateral to umbilical region to the left
right hypochondriac- lateral to the epigastric region on the right; liver
left hypochondriac- lateral to the epigastric region on the left; stomach spleen, etc
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