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ECON 306 Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (73)
When the results of an experiment can be applied to real-world conditions, that experiment is said to have _________
If the scores on a test have a mean of 26 and a standard deviation of 4, what is the z-score for a score of 18?
Which of the following is designed to compensate for practice effects?
A measure of the dispersion or spread of data around the mean.
A café owner wanted to compare how much revenue he gained from lattes across different months of the year. What type of variable is 'month'?
A variable that measures the effect that manipulating another variable has is known as a _________________
The test measures what it claims to measure.
If a test is valid, what does this mean?
A frequency distribution in which there are too many scores at the extremes of the distribution said to be ________________
The standard deviation is the square root of the ______________
Variation due to variables that have not been measured is known as _____________
A frequency distribution in which high scores are most frequent (i.e. bars on the graph are highest on the right hand side) is said to be _______________
It can represent:
-The confidence interval round the mean.
-The standard error of the mean.
-The standard deviation of the mean.
What does the 'error bar' on an error bar chart represent?
The discrepancy between the numbers used to represent something that we are trying to measure and the actual value of what we are measuring is called ________________
The standard error decreases as the sample size increases.
What is the relationship between sample size and the standard error of the mean? (Hint: The law of large numbers applies here: the larger the sample is, the better it will reflect that particular population.)
Researchers can study cross-cultural effects more easily.
What is not an advantage of repeated-measures designs in comparison to independent-measures designs?
A(n) _____________ is the sum of squares divided by its degrees of freedom
A(n) ____________ is single score/response that is very different from others.
It refers to codes rather than variables.
How is a variable name different from a variable label?
__________________ allow the researcher to identify the relationship between two variables.
The aim of __________________ is to investigate what caused a phenomenon.
A _____________ shows scores on one variable plotted against scores on a second variable.
A Box-Whisker plot does not display/include the ____________
To predict a person's occupation by their income, lawyers are coded as 0 and accountants as 1. If there are 100 cases and 40 are accountants, what is the mean of the variable?
_____________ statistics describes the data.
A spreadsheet into which data can be entered.
In SPSS, what is the data view window?
Click on: Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Frequencies
You manager has asked you to identify the number of men responding in your annual staff survey. How would you generate this output?
_____________ is a measure of the variability of sample estimates of a parameter.
____________ level data are characterized by data that can be meaningfully arranged by order of magnitude
Define the variable as 'string'.
What is the correct way to record non-numerical values in SPSS?
Accept the null hypothesis and state that there is no difference in the duration of the survival between the two types of cancer, but that it is worth further investigation.
Assume that for the research into stomach and lung cancer the significance value is set at p < .05 and an independent t-test yielded a significance value of p = .06. What should you do?
In general, as the sample size (N) increases the confidence interval ______________
No you cannot, because the lower boundary of the confidence interval is .131, which is less than .30, and so the true correlation could be less than .30
Assume a researcher found that the correlation between a test she had developed and exam performance was .5 in a study of 25 students. She had previously been informed that correlations under .30 are considered unacceptable. The 95% confidence interval was [0.131, 0.747]. Can you be confident that the true correlation is at least 0.30?
The number of nightmares you have is not affected by eating cheese before bed.
If my experimental hypothesis were 'Eating cheese before bed affects the number of nightmares you have', what would the null hypothesis be?
In large samples even small effects can be deemed 'significant'.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between sample size and significance testing? (Hint: Remember that test statistics are basically a signal-to-noise ratio, so given that large samples have less 'noise' they make it easier to find the 'signal'.)
A sports psychologist was interested in the effects of a six-week imagery intervention on an athlete's ability to execute a sport-specific skills such penalty taking in football/soccer. How might you define the imagery variable?
Assuming the histogram is not normally distributed (i.e. does not have a 'bell-shaped' curve appearance), what would be the most appropriate measure of central tendency?
95% confidence interval of the mean
95 out of 100 confidence intervals will contain the population mean.
It gives you a measure of how well your sample parameter represents the population value.
Why is the standard error important?
Normally distributed data are normally referred to as _________
-2 and +2
95% of data under a normal distribution curve fall between which z-scores?
Sprint time before the supplementation (i.e. pre-test)
If you were to research the effect of caffeine dose (no caffeine, high and low concentrations) on 100 m sprint time, what would be the independent variable if a repeated-measures design was to be used?
How is a null hypothesis denoted?
We conclude that there is an effect in the population when in fact there is not.
A Type I error occurs when: (Hint: When we use test statistics to tell us about the true state of the world, we're trying to see whether there is an effect in our population.)
We can be 95% confident that the true difference between the population means falls between -0.08 and 0.15.
A 95% confidence interval for the difference between two population means is found to be (-0.08, 0.15). What is true?
People who eat salmon will have a more glowing complexion compared to those who don't.
What is the alternative hypothesis for the following question: Does eating salmon make your skin glow?
p is the probability of observing a test statistic at least as big as the one we have if there were no effect in the population (i.e., the null hypothesis were true).
Of what is p the probability? (Hint: NHST relies on fitting a 'model' to the data and then evaluating the probability of this 'model' given the assumption that no effect exists.)
This finding is statistically significant at the .05 level of significance.
Under a null hypothesis, a sample value yields a p-value of .015. Which of the following statements is true?
'Children can learn a second language differently before the age of 7 than after.' This statement is a _____________
How would you conceptualize the measurement of blood pressure from a group of individuals on multiple occasions to see if the results were sufficiently similar?
A two-tailed test is considered a ___________
We conclude that there is not an effect in the population when in fact there is.
A Type II error occurs when _______________. (Hint: This would occur when we obtain a small test statistic--perhaps because there is a lot of natural variation between our samples.)
If the confidence interval for the difference between two means does include ___________ then the difference between the means is statistically significant.
Click on Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Frequencies
How would you use the drop-down menus in SPSS to generate a frequency table?
Effect on the dependent variable
In experiments the independent variable is manipulated to determine the ______________
What type of distribution does the z-statistic follow?
A range within which the researcher believes the true mean value will fall is a ________________
A _______________ predicts that the experimental treatment will have no effect.
Family-Wise Error Rate
The error rate across statistical tests conducted on the same experimental data is a ______________
If a doctor wishes to study the effect of a certain type of antibiotic treatment on hospitalized patients, what type of variable will be required to allow for measurements between the group of patients given the treatment and those who are given alternative treatment?
The number of hours of independent study has no effect upon academic attainment.
Which of the following could be described as a null hypothesis for testing the link between academic attainment of secondary school pupils studying for GCSEs and hours of independent study completed by each student?
Mean, Standard Deviations of the sample, and Z-Score
Confidence intervals are a means of assessing the accuracy of sample data. If you read that the average expected range of birth weight of newborns in your area falls between 2 and 12 lbs, what additional information is required in order to predict a 95% confidence interval in terms of birth weights?
There will be no relationship between heart rate and the number of cups of coffee drunk within the last 4 hours.
What is the null hypothesis for the following question: Is there a relationship between heart rate and the number of cups of coffee drunk within the last 4 hours?
In a blind tasting, people will not be able to tell the difference between margarine and butter. This statement can be described as a ________________
Sleep deprivation will reduce the ability to perform a complex cognitive task. State the direction of this hypothesis.....
The participants vary greatly from one another.
A repeated-measures design will be useful when ___________
A multiple choice test to measure primary school pupils' ability in mathematics is administered to a number of pupils across Newcastle-upon-Tyne. There is a mean test score of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Can the test score of one pupil be calculated from the z-score?
p < .0001
A study undertaken in a surgical ward determined that the use of a specific antibacterial handwash was considered to be the most effective and cost effective. Which of the following results would be considered most significant?
In SPSS what would be the window that you need to access in order to enter your data for analysis?
Large standard deviations will have what sort of distribution, relative to a distribution with a low standard deviation?
What is the conventional level of probability that is often accepted when conducting statistical tests?
Confidence intervals would decrease in size.
What effect would increasing the sample size have on the confidence intervals of the group?
a variable thought to be the cause of some effect
An independent variable is ______________
The interquartile range represents how many percentiles?
Recommended textbook explanations
A Survey of Mathematics with Applications
Allen R. Angel, Christine D. Abbott, Dennis C. Runde
Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics
Douglas A. Lind, Samuel A. Wathen, William G. Marchal
Mathematical Statistics with Applications
Dennis Wackerly, Richard L. Scheaffer, William Mendenhall
A First Course in Probability
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