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Asian 300 Midterm
Terms in this set (33)
Asian international relations operate at two levels:
Tense, More Conflicts
Rising military powers pose threat to surrounding countries
Growing interconnection, interdependence;
state level conflicts reduce:
-economic: trade/investment increase
-culture: more pursue educations in Asia, more tour Asian countries -non-traditional security (war): terrorism, environment, link between human (traditional) and war (non-traditional) security
Society Level Interdependence
May act as buffer against hostility (nation-state)
Act of Seclusion, Who/Where: The ruling regime of Japan
When: 13th-19th Cent.
What: The regime under which the samurai class ruled from, it was a feudal society based on a relationship
between landlords and peasants
Why: The government when Perry invaded, the Tokugawa court was divided between complete westernization, retaining some aspects of culture, and expelling all foreigners (isolationism).
Thomas Hobbes (Realist)
State of War = Natural
States seek survival,
* thru invasion or preempting
International anarchy !!!BUT!!!
Peaceful/coop. int'l relations possible
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
Ended 1st Opium War; British win;
Britain gained extra-territoriality in Chinese ports (including HK);
* "Most-favored nation" status
* British living in China were governed by British laws, sent to British courts, etc.
Ended Japanese seclusion
Led to Treaty of Kanagawa
* Guaranteed safety for shipwrecked US Sailors
* Opened two Japanese ports
Hub & Spokes
Bilateral military treaties
Constructivists believe state interests & behaviors are continuously redefined by norms and culture.
Robert Pape ("Why Japan Surrendered")
Prospect of losing Japan's home islands was high, pressing Japan to surrender
For Imperial China, the main function of the TRIBUTE SYSTEM was to conduct trade with the outside world
Main function for:
* China was to extend and maintain hierarchy and separation
* Foreigners- trade, ruling legitimacy, KOWTOW
* Reached as far as Southeast Asia and Africa
The _____ trade played an instrumental role in integrating China to the outside world.
The ______ ended the rule of the Tokugawa and marked the beginning of Japan's modernization
A NeoRealism Founder
States' actions can often be explained by the pressures exerted on them by international competition
State of lawlessness/disorder
* Usually results from gov't failure
A state's improved defensive power is threatening to others, whose response is to increase own defenses
* Constant struggle for security against other states through increase in security (usually power)
The Democratic Peace
Liberal democracies seldom war amongst one another
* LD gov'ts face more domestic constraint
*Int'l law fosters cooperation among LDs
* Gov't minimally intervenes,
**Provides hospitality to foreigners
-> fosters economic
Agree w/ Realist:
* States: Self-Help; Survival is Key
Differ from Realist:
* Stately cooperation is possible
NL Institutions foster cooperation:
* Thru repeated interactions, building reputation & credibility
* Reduce uncertainty
* Increase efficiency
Use "Logic of Appropriateness" to predict behavior
* Shared Identity
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.
East India Company
Dutch tea company that fostered the formation of direct trade throughout Asia.
Japanese man who was shipwrecked and rescued by Americans, brought to U.S.; Interrogated upon return to Japan;
Shared insight on U.S.
traditions, habits, technologies
China's program of internal reform (effort to handle the effects of imperialism) in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West (military, factories). It failed, leading to the Boxer Rebellion and the end of the Qing Dynasty.
US-Japan Treaty of
Amity and Commerce (1858)
Establishment of Consuls
Between North and South Korea, in which the US, and other UN countries, fought on South Koreans' side; China/Russia fought on North Koreans' side
Essay/ Short Answer
How do external influences (military, economic interactions, cultural interactions) shape a country's domestic policy & outcomes?
External influence: British
Domestic Policy: Legalized Opium in China
Outcomes: Addicted citizens; deal with changes to international affairs
Essay/ Short Answer
How do domestic factors (political institutions, political actors, public opinion, societal preference/pressure) shape a country's foreign policy and relations with other countries?
Domestic Factor: Japanese officials visit WWII memorial to honor dead Japanese soldiers
Result: Korea sees this as a threat
How it affects Japanese Policy:
* Gov't apologizes to Korea
* Majority of Japan's public opinion did not approve of gov't action
* Makes Japan seem weak to other countries
Essay/ Short Answer
Which of the 3 major IR theories best explains int'l relations in Asia?
A single IR theory does not best explain international relations in Asia.
A mix of concepts from constructivism, realism, and liberalism must be applied.
a. China's rising influence and power on international level is understood by Chinese officials
b. Resultant: China's imposition upon Taiwan (using force if necessary to incorporate Taiwan under China's rule)
Essay/ Short Answer
Evaluate the role of history and legacy in today's domestic politics and Asian international relations.
Do history and legacy affect Asian countries' policy and behaviors toward each other?
(Lind, Apologies in International Politics)
* First considers former enemy's perception of the country, then considers reconciliation
* Denial of past - hostile view
* Acknowledgement & Apology
for past - favorable view
Remembrance leads to
1. Contrition (remorse) is costly signal of benign (good) intention
2. Shows respect, thus opens up possible future interactions
3. Lack of contrition leads to past enemy's increased anger & hurt pride
3 phases of Japanese remembrance :
Early: denial, glorification of past
Middle: Increasing remorse
Late: Highest level of remorse
* Increased apologies triggered homeland backlash, leading to more nationalistic stance
* SK perception: distrusted Japan, viewed it aggressively, linked this view to its denial of the past
"Interdependence among countries reduces tensions."
What does interdependence mean? Some forms it takes?
Interdependence is the foreign dealings with other countries. By engaging in such activities, both participating countries are placing stake within the other country, whereby both countries would suffer were one to falter. Forms of interdependence include: international trade, treaties and contracts w/ foreign countries, sharing technological developments, trading one resource of abundance found in one country for another resource of abundance found in another country.
Implications of showing remorse about past events
* Neither denial nor contrition will improve either country's (Japan-S.Korea) relations
* Countries reconcile if they:
- Construct shared, non-accusatory version of past
- Organize multilateral venues to discuss & implement measures to deal with past
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that "the ends justifies the means."
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